Saturday, May 31, 2014

Research Notes....October, 2012 - August, 2013

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Posts on Google Blogger......October 31, 2012 - August 2013

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King Vishtaspa of Balkh (900 BC?)...Zarathustra and his followers wandered until they found a sympathetic friend in King Vishtaspa, who lived in eastern Iran or in Bactria, modern Afghanistan....

The Asura - Deva Worshippers .... Conflict and Separation (1500 BC)...King Vishtasp's victory resulted in the deva worshippers living in Bactria, leaving or being pushed south through the Hindu Kush mountain passes into the upper Indus valley (today's Pakistan). It is possible that the Indus valley had previously been populated by deva worshippers, and that those from Central Asia migrated to join their co-religionists...

Mithraic Median Empire (700 BC)...According to the Histories of Herodotus, the Medes were called anciently by all people 'Aryans'...

Masmoghân: The Chief Magian (521 BC)...Ustûnâwand [near Rhagae] is said to have been in existence for more than three thousand years, and to have been the stronghold of the Masmoghân of the land during the times of paganism. This word, which designates the high priest of the Zoroastrian religion, is composed of mas, 'great', and moghân, which means 'Magian'...

Shenlha Okar Iconography: The White Turban... On his head was a white turban.... on his feet he wore patraongden boots from Shangshung ...

Shangshung, Ling & Tagzig Olmo Lung Ring... According to the "gZi-brjid", Olmo Lung-ring was also known as Shambhala in Sanskrit...

Deities: Ganas, Gi-kod, Thorse and Werma of Kailash...360 Gi-kod or 360 Werma-deities.....live on the holy mountain Tise (Mt Kailash), which is also believed to be the residence of the Hindu god Siva...

Shiva, Shiwa Okar, Shenlha Okar & Mt Kailash Deities...Shiva means "the One who is eternally pure"....... the main 'Bon' deity, Shenlha Okar, is none other than Shiva Omkar living in Kailash by Mansarovar.

Ancient Nomadic Bards & Poetic Oral History...A hereditary caste of professional poets in Proto-Indo-European society has been reconstructed by comparison of the position of poets in medieval Ireland and in ancient India in particular....

Celtic Druids, Persian Magi, Indo-Europeans (7000 BC)... Sun worship may have played an important part of their beliefs....it was known in the ancient world that the Druids were the "Magi of the North"...

Japanese Shamanism & Solar Kingship (175 AD)...Noh probably originated in ancient matsuri in which shamans allowed deities to possess their bodies so that they could tell their history and explain their powers...

Ancient Rome & Central Asia (800 BC)...Many of the gods that Romans worshiped came from the Proto-Indo-European pantheon, others were based on Greek gods....

Bala Hissar: (Bala = Elevated...Hissar = Fort)...Bala Hissar is an ancient fortress located in the city of Kabul, Afghanistan. The estimated date of construction is around the 5th century A.D....

Shams = Candle/Light/Sun.......Bala = Elevated/Higher...Shams is the Arabic word for "sun" (شمس). ........Bala is from Dari Persian, meaning, “elevated"

Land of the Dakinis & Uddiyana...Uddiyana is not an invisible, celestial buddha field where people cannot go.... it is said that it is located somewhere in what is now known as Pakistan....

Abrahamic Religions...Judaism, Christianity and Islam....In the oldest biblical literature (12th–11th centuries BC) Yahweh is a typical ancient Near Eastern "divine warrior" who leads the heavenly army against Israel's enemies; he and Israel are bound by a covenant under which Yahweh will protect Israel, and Israel in turn will not worship other gods...

Garsha: The Lahoul Valley (700 AD)...the Lahaulis are of Tibetan and Indo-Aryan descent.... Fairer skin and hazel-colored eyes are commonly seen among the Lahaulis....the Lahaulis follow a combination of Hinduism and Tibetan Buddhism....

Garsha: The Lahoul Valley (700 AD)...the Lahaulis are of Tibetan and Indo-Aryan descent.... Fairer skin and hazel-colored eyes are commonly seen among the Lahaulis....the Lahaulis follow a combination of Hinduism and Tibetan Buddhism....

Oddiyana: The Śākta Pīṭha...Shakta Pithas.....Skt., pitha; Altars, Seats or Thrones of Divine Female Energy...

Ancient Kashmir & Uddiyana...the birth place of Garab Dorje not simply as 'Uddiyana' but as being close to Lake Kutra in the region of Dhanakosha; thus indicating present day North-eastern Kashmir (now Pakistan) - a region right in the middle between Chitral, Gilgit and Swat. ...

Kalachakra: Oddiyana & The Kingdom of Shambala... there was a kingdom of Oddiyana, in the north west of India, which had two parts – one was the main kingdom which was large and the other was governed by a prince of Oddiyana and was called Shambala, or Sambala... the region spanning eastern Afghanistan, Oddiyana, and Kashmir.

Greco-Bactrian Region: Buddhist Era Kings (900 BC)...the Trungpa Vidyadhara....pointed to the Kingdom of Shambhala, an ancient (some say mythical, some say real, 'most CCL....could care less') Kingdom of Central Asia ruled by a lineage of enlightened monarchs....

Hui Chao: Bactrian Pilgrimage (726 AD)...Hyeocho arrives in Gandhara, where Buddhist art reached brilliant heights. He goes north from there, passing through Oddiyana, and then west, to Afghanistan. He visits Bamyan and then heads to Tokhara....

Phrom Ge-sar and Khorasan Tegin Shah (680 AD)... the reign of Fromo Kesaro (739-746) and may have contributed to his transformation in later historical tradition into the Tibetan national hero Gesar, whose figure still survives today in the folklore of the territory of ancient Gandhara....

Ancient Bactria: Numismatic History (700 AD)...Bactria.....highly urbanized and considered as one of the richest of the Orient .... "The extremely prosperous empire of the thousand cities of Bactria"...

King Gesar, Tazig, Hor & Bactria (700 AD)...Tazig: appears to signify Persia. 13 days horseback ride from the Kingdom of Ling...(about 250 miles)

Nālandā University & Nava Vihara University (5th C. AD)...Nava Vihara.....near the ancient city of Balkh in northern Afghanistan..... the center of higher Buddhist study for all of Central Asia, comparable to Nalanda Monastery in central northern India...

Kingdom of Balkh: 2500 BC...between the 26th and 20th century BC was the most important period in the history of Balkh...

Mahasiddha Tilopa & Oddiyana (988 AD)... Uddiyana is located somewhere in what is now known as Pakistan. Many great masters of Tibet, as well as scholars of China and India, have visited Uddiyana, the source of Tantrayana teachings....

Enlightened Monarchy in Ancient Central Asia...Much of the Trungpa Vidyadhara's work, especially in the last ten years of his life, was dedicated to propagating what he called "enlightened society," ...as a model, he pointed to the Kingdom of Shambhala, an ancient (some say mythical, some say real, most could care less) kingdom of Central Asia ruled by a lineage of enlightened monarchs...

Great Eastern Sun & Ancient Central Asia...Khorasan" is derived from Middle Persian khor (meaning "sun") and asan (or ayan literally meaning "to come" or "coming" or "about to come"), hence meaning "land where the sun rises"....

Kāśyapa Buddha (5th C. BC)...One day, instead of sermonizing, the Buddha held up a red flower. No one knew what to make of this. Then his favorite disciple Mahakasyapa smiled knowingly...

Nikbanou: Yazdegerd & Chak Chak (7th C. AD)...Chak Chak is where Nikbanou, second daughter of the last pre-Islamic Persian ruler, Yazdegerd III of the Sassanid Empire, was cornered by the invading Arab army in 640 AD. ...

Sacred Fire: Fire Puja & Fire Offering...The fire offering ceremony is a special ceremony.....called "Jin Sie" in Tibetan language, and "Huo Gong" in Mandarin Chinese. It is one of the sacrificial rituals for worshiping divinities in which people will burn the tributes, crops, tree branches and incantation tallies to pray for peace and harmony.....The fire offering ceremony is not held frequently...

Gautama Buddha: The Fire Sermon...The Ādittapariyāya Sutra..... is a discourse from the Pali Canon, popularly known as the Fire Sermon. In this discourse, the Buddha preaches about achieving liberation from suffering through detachment from the five senses and mind....

Iranian Buddhism (1st C. BC)..._The Muslim conquerors of eastern Iran, Afghanistan, and Transoxania in the mid-8th century found Bud­dhism flourishing in a series of prosperous trading communities along the old caravan routes to India and China...

Bactria: The Lalitavistara Sutra (3rd C. AD)...According to early Hinayana biographies of the Buddha, such as the Sarvastivada text The Sutra of Extensive Play (Skt. Lalitavistara Sutra), Tapas­su and Bhallika, two merchant broth­ers from Bac­tria ( Balkh today in Afghanistan), became the first disciples to receive layman’s vows. This occurred eight weeks after Shakyamuni’s enlightenment, traditionally ascribed to 537 BCE. ...

The Origins of Vedic Sanskrit (1500 BC)... there is a proposed substratum in Proto-Indo-Iranian which can be plausibly identified with the original language of the BMAC ( 2300–1700 BCE, centered on the Oxus River).. Moreover, Lubotsky points out a larger number of words apparently borrowed from the same language, which are only attested in Indo-Aryan and therefore evidence of a substratum in Vedic Sanskrit....

Sacred Mountain: Taht-I-Suleiman (1000 BC)...According to the UNESCO, the Taht-I-Suleiman mountain is "the most complete example of a sacred mountain anywhere in Central Asia, worshipped over several millennia...

Trapussa & Bhallika of Balkh: First Two Buddhists...Tradition has it that Trapussa (Tapassu, Taphussa) and Bhallika (Bhalluka), two merchant brothers from Balkh, Bactria visited the Buddha immediately after his enlightenment, became his disciples and then returned to Balkh to build temples dedicated to him......

Dralas: Hvarena, Khvarnah & Fravashi (550 BC)...FRAVASHIS...."A class of higher intelligences...guardian spirits and prototypes of mankind in its purest creation...the nineteenth day of every month is consecrated to them. They resemble the Vedic Pitrs, the Roman Manes, or the Platonic Ideas...

Kareez: Ancient Water System of Central Asia (2,000 BC)...Bactra—the Greek name under which pre-Islamic Balkh was known—encapsulated Bronze Age settlements around 2,000 BC when its ancient water systems were built....

Ancient Central Asia: 50,000 BC...Archaeologists and historians suggest that humans were living in Afghanistan at least 50,000 years ago, and that farming communities of the region were among the earliest in the world...

Bactria & the Chinese Explorer Zhang Qian (130 BC)...they had their capital in the north of the K'ui-shui [Oxus] and made it the court of their king. The population of Ta-hia may amount to more than a million. Their capital is called Balka...

The Chinese Buddhist Pilgrim Xuanzang in Bactria (635 AD)...Po-Ho [Balkh]. .....on the north it borders on the Oxus....It is called generally the little Pajariha. ...The products of the soil are extremely varied, and the flowers, both on the land and water, would be difficult to enumerate. There are about 100 convents and 3000 monks, who all study the religious teaching of the Little Vehicle. Outside the city, towards the south-west, there is a convent called Navasangharama, which was built by a former king of this country. ...

Royal Palace of the King of Shambala...Balkh was usually rich rather than powerful, and became the envy and the prize of more warlike neighbors....Alexander took Bactria in 329 B.C.E., and made it his base for conquest and amalgamation of the Greek and Iranian civilizations.....Balkh flourished at the crossroads as a depot and trans-shipment point for the world’s luxuries. “ From the Roman Empire the caravans brought gold and silver vessels and wine; from Central Asia and China rubies, furs, aromatic gums, drugs, raw silk and embroidered silks; from India spices, cosmetics, ivory and precious gems of infinite variety”. With the merchants came monks preaching the new religion of Buddhism, and Balkh became a center of worship and learning, famous for its temples and monasteries....

Kingdom of Shambhala.....The Kalapa Moon Temple.....the country’s capital, Kalapa by name. By night, the city of light is lit up as bright as day, so that the moon can no longer be seen. There the Shambhala king lives in a palace made from every conceivable gem and diamond. The architecture is based upon the laws of the heavens. There is a sun temple and a moon temple....

Kingdom of Shambhala.... The Kalapa Sun Temple...the Gurdjieffian J. G. Bennett published speculation that Shambalha was Shams-i-Balkh, a Bactrian sun temple...

Jamgon Kongtrul Lodro Thaye: Creative Vision & Inner Reality (1813-1899)...The completion stage employs the "mystic vortices" of the body, the cakra, the subtle energy of the subtle body, the five pranas or vāyu, together with the channels, the nadi through which the energy flows in order to generate the 'great bliss' (Tibetan: Dem Chog or bde-mchog; Sanskrit: Maha-sukha) associated with bodhi or enlightenment...

Ösel: Radiant Matter & Radiant Light...Ösel (tib. hod-gsal; 'od gsal), the Yoga of the Clear Light (often translated as 'Radiant Light' (Sanskrit: prabhasvara), referring to the 'intrinsic purity' (Tibetan: ka-dag) of the substratum of the 'mindstream' (Tibetan: sems-rgyud) is a sadhana found in Vajrayana and Bön centered on the state of luminous clarity. ...

Shamanic Flight: Vimāna, Lung-gom, and the Flight of Rigden Suchandra...when the Buddha proclaimed "Kalachakra", ninety seven kings headed by Rigden Sucandra, flew from the Kingdom of Shambala under magical powers...

Diodotus of Bactria (285 BC – c. 239 BC) & Emperor Ashoka...At the heart of the Greek or Roman inspiration of Gandhara Buddhist art lies the fact that its first two patrons were Alexander and Diodotus of Bactria (Asoka)...

World Heritage Sites in Afghanistan...City of Balkh......Paktra, later known as Bactria is ascribed to Kaiomars, and at an early date it was said to have rivaled urban centres such as Babylon. For a long period Bactria was the spiritual centre for the Zoroastrian religion, as well as having a rich temple to the goddess Anahita. Accounts of visitors in the 7th century AD indicate the existence of a significant number of Buddhist monasteries, stupas and other monuments in the city...

Uyghur Kingdom of Qocho (856 AD)...Uyghur Kingdom of Qocho......After 840 it then became occupied by Uyghurs fleeing Kirghiz invasion of their land. The Uyghurs established the Kingdom of Qocho (Kara-Khoja) in 850. The inhabitants of Qocho practiced Buddhism, Manichaeism and Nestorian Christianity....

Kham & Uyghur Qinghai...Large numbers of Sogdian refugees came to Ordu-Baliq to escape the Islamic conquest of their homeland. They converted the Uyghur nobility from Buddhism to Manichaeism. Thus, the Uyghurs inherited the legacy of Sogdian Culture....

Shambhala & Music...I once went to hear the St Matthew Passion in Oxford. This was such a great discovery. Experiencing the tremendous heroism and spiritual passion in that atmosphere of sanctity, that I felt as though the occasion was my own private feast. From the beauty of the music I gained further appreciation of the Western legacy. My Tibetan friend panicked and thought I was in danger of being converted to Christianity...(Trungpa: 1983)...

Veneration & Making Offerings..."Venerate Me and Make Offerings"...

Melong, Mirror Divination, Goddess of the Turquoise Lamp...Trungpa Rinpoché sent me this eight-point prediction letter in 1973. He wrote it in his own hand, as he was young and able at that time. Rinpoché asked his personal deity for a pramana prediction concerning my activity. During the rituals called létsok, or activity practices, a deity is invoked - a yidam or Dharma protector - and highly accomplished practitioners can ask them questions. Their answers appear in a mirror. Trungpa Rinpoché’s deity for this practice was the deity Lhamo Youdrönma, Goddess of the Turquoise Lamp.Melong, Mirror Divination, Goddess of the Turquoise Lamp

Dadar, mDa' dar, Dadhar, Arrow Divination...shaman's or lama's 'magical' arrow, complete with small shaman's mirror (toli), and pieces of silk.....in Tibetan Buddhism Silk Arrows (Tib: Mda-dar) are arrows with either one or several silk scarfs tied to them which are used for divination, attracting wealth and many other types of both white and black magic.......Wealth attracting arrows (Tib: Nor sGrub Mda-dar) are used to 'hunt' wealth.......Arrows like this are also used in Soul Retrieval ceremonies by Tibetan shamans.

Mu Cord (dmu thag) & Rainbow Body (Jalü)...the first Tibetan kings descended from heaven through rope-like structures called dmu-thag and after their time on Earth was up they returned back to heaven in a similar fashion..

Kingdom of Guge & The Garuda Valley of Zhang Zhung...Guge Kingdom......For centuries Hindus, Buddhists, Jains and the followers of Bon have revered Mount Kailash as the most sacred pilgrimage destination in Asia. It is common for pilgrims to do circumambulation of the sacred mountain, commonly called kora or parikrama. Here four of Asia's greatest rivers - the Indus, the Brahmaputra, the Karnali and the Sutlej find their source....

Dunhuang Caves & The Silk Road (1000 AD)...the largest collections of Dunhuang manuscripts and printed documents, well over 40,000 in total, belong to the National Library of China and Beijing University Library, the British Library in London, Bibliothèque Nationale de France in Paris, the Institute for Oriental Studies in St. Petersburg, and Ryūkoku University Library in Kyoto. ...

Rawak Stupa & Ancient Khotan (8th C. AD)...According to legend, the foundation of Khotan occurred when Kushtana, said to be a son of Asoka, the Mauryan emperor, settled in Khotan about 224 BCE...

King Gheysar: Keyumars, Gayomart, Gar-shāh, Gesar...Fromo Kesaro, the Majestic Sovereign who defeated the Arabs and laid a tax on them. Thus they sent it...

Ancient Ceremonial Dance & Ritual Magic...Both the Buddhist & Bon deer dances held the intent of driving away evil forces to establish a good start to the new year. ...

Extreme Weather Events of 535–536 AD Central Asia...climate changes may have contributed to various developments, such as the emergence of the Plague of Justinian, the decline of the Avars, the migration of Mongolian tribes towards the West, the end of the Persian Empire, the rise of Islam, and the fall of Teotihuacán...

Umm-al-Belad & The Kayanian Dynasty (2500 BC)..._Umm Al-Belaad is the Arabic name given by the native population of Afghanistan's Balkh province to the city of Balkh (Bactra). Umm Al-Belaad means Mother of All Cities. In Vedic literature, it is known as Bhakri, and it became Bactra as the area was Hellenized after the conquests of Alexander the Great. It was from then on the capital city of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom..... Its foundation is mythically ascribed to Keyumar and it was the rival of Ecbatana, Nineveh and Babylon. There is a long-standing tradition that an ancient shrine of Anahita was here, a temple so rich it invited plunder....

Shinto: Shin Tao, Way of the Gods, Kami, Drala...Shinto is one of Japan's most prestigious ancient religions, tracing back to around 500 BCE. The word Shinto is derived from the Chinese word "shin tao" meaning "The Way of Gods...

Silver Palace in the Garuda Valley...Kyunglung Ngulkar Karpo...life at the Shang Shung court: Queen Sadmarkar describes the great riches in the palace, which she calls the "Kyunglung Ngulkar Karpo" (Silver Palace in the Garuda Valley). The palace contained hundreds of rooms, and its walls, she writes, were studded with gold and agate....

Magus & Magi of Central Asia (6th C. BC)...Meditation practice brings out the supernatural, if I may use that word. You do not see ghosts or become telepathic, but your perceptions become super-natural, simply super-natural...

Shi Wai Tao Yuan: The Peach Blossom Land..."Shangri-la" means an ideal living place, like the Garden of Eden or heaven in western countries. Shangri-la (Shi Wai Tao Yuan).....the poetic imagery depicted in Tao Hua Yuan Ji by the famous poet Tao Yuanming in the Jin Dynasty....

Bhutan: Bon-Buddhist Synchronism...Buddhist practice in Bhutan has had an overpowering influence from Bon. "In my opinion and from my observations, the influence has been great. Although Buddhism is our faith, I think many of our rituals are not only derived from Bon but are based on Bon beliefs...

Indrabhuti of Oddiyana, King Dza...the Guhyasamāja Tantra was taught for the first time by the Buddha in the form of Vajradhara to Indrabhuti the King of Oddiyana, also called King Dza...

Sangwa Dupa: The Guhyasamaja...The Guhyasamaja (Tib. sangwa-dupa) which focuses on the primordial buddha Akshobya is believed to be one of the first Sanskrit works to be translated into Tibetan....

Kunzang Akor: Shenlha Okar...Kunzang Akor: the All-good 'A' Circle is a meditational form of Shenlha Okar. He is generally recognized by the Tibetan letter 'A' placed on the chest at the level of the heart....

Dorje Lingpa: Gold Needle Terma: Serthur (1346-1405)...one of the principal reasons for visiting Paro was to reveal some hidden manuscripts in one of the caves of Tagtshang. The “Gold Needle” is the main work of the manuscript collection. It contains a remarkably original exposition of the Dzogchen doctrine, which he claims to be in accordance with the Bon tradition....

Sacred Water: Gyatso...The most common type of offering on Tibetan Buddhist shrines are water offerings. It also called yonchap in Tibetan....

Plato: Basic Goodness & The Great Eastern Sun (320 BC)...Plato uses the sun as a metaphor for the source of "illumination", which he held to be The Form of the Good.... The metaphor is about the nature of ultimate reality and how knowledge is acquired concerning it.....Plato says the sun and the Good are both sources of "generation"...

Eflatun Pinar, Sacred Hittite Spring (13th C. BC)...The sun goddess of Arinna is the most important one of three important solar deities of the Hittite pantheon, besides UTU nepisas - "the sun of the sky" and UTU taknas - "the sun of the earth...

Tirthas, Kshetra, Sacred Sites & Power Spots...Power place...(gnas ri) "a venerated mountain power place, a place that has been empowered by the presence and by the activities of famous religious practitioners throughout the centuries....

Hozho: Navajo and Tibetan Sacred Wisdom...Tibetans use two words to express the ideal state of being: "tashi," a harmonious relationship with the universe, and "sangye se," Buddha nature or enlightenment. The Navajos, on the other hand, use the word "hozho" or "beauty" to describe an "empowered state of the deities....

Kalachakra Deity & Vishvamata (World Mother)...Kalachakra refers a Tantric deity (Tib. yidam) of Vajrayana Buddhism .... The consort of Kalchakra is called Vishvamata . She is in pratyalidha attitude....

Vishvamata: World Mother of Diversity...In Kalapa, to the south of the palace is a wonderful park. In it Rigden Suchandra ordered the temple of Kalachakra and Vishvamata to be built. It is made from five valuable materials: gold, silver, turquoise, coral, and pearl. Its ground plan corresponds to the Kalachakra sand mandala....

Kalapa: Physical Descriptions of Shambala...The monks wear white, speak Sanskrit, and are all initiated into the mysteries of the Kalachakra Tantra. The majority of them are considered enlightened. Then come the warriors. The king is at the same time the supreme commander...

Āditya Solar Dynasty & the Sakya Clan of the Buddha... Aditya is used in the singular to mean the sun....the Sakya clan of the Buddha, a clan which also claimed to belong to the race of Aditya i.e. solar race....

King Suddhodana : Father of the Buddha (583 BC)...The Shakyas were of the Kshatriya solar race and called themselves rajas....Shakya kshatriyas were considering themselves as the purest breed of kshatriya.

Rishabha: Founder of Jainism (7190 BC)...Chandragupta, who was a Hindu, was influenced to accept Jainism by the sage Bhadrabahu; his grandson, Ashoka, Chandragupta Maurya is one of the most celebrated rulers in the history of India....

Historical Shakyamuni Buddha (c. 560 to 485 BC)...The Kalachakra tantra puts the life of Shakyamuni Buddha in the 9th. Century BCE, instead of the more commonly accepted 6th. Century BC...

Gurdjieff : All Roads Lead To Balkh (1866 – 1949)...Idries Shah me suggéra que Shamballa pouvait être dérivé de Shams-i-Balkh, le temple solaire bactérien dont les ruines existent encore à Balkh près de la frontière nord de l'Afghanistan. Rudolf Steiner associait Balkh à Hraniratta, le centre du culte mithraïque du soleil....

Badakhshan and the Wakhan Corridor...From the land of Bamiyan I travelled northwards 20 days, and I arrived in Tokharistan. The home city of the king is called Balkh. At this time the troops of the Arabs are there and they occupy it. Its king was forced to flee one month's journey to the east and lives in Badakhshan. ...

Khezr, Khidr: Prophet, Guide, Patron-Saint...Some have speculated that not only are these two myths of Khezr and Guru Rinpoche (Padmasambhava) similar, they are in fact, one being...

Khwājagān Sufi Masters (900 AD)....Balkh is the homeland of Baha ad-Din Naqshband, the greatest of the Khwjaghan Masters...

NYIDA: Vegetarian Diet of Shambala...Chogyam Trungpa...."NYIDA: The vegetarian diet of Shambhala. Nyi stands for yellow and green foods, primarily vegetables and fruits, and da for white foods such as milk, yogurt, cheese and tofu......enjoy as your provision only yogurt, milk, white butter, cheese, fresh vegetables, raw fish and white rice. You should refrain from garlic, onions, fat and other meats....

Oddiyana & the Origins of Dzogchen (7th C. AD)...Garab Dorje lived in the 7th Century in Eastern Pakistan/Afghanistan....

Abaris the Skywalker, The Avars (6th C. BC)...Abaris the Hyperborean was a legendary sage, healer, and priest of Apollo known to the Ancient Greeks. He was supposed to have learned his skills in his homeland of Hyperborea, near the Caucasus Indus,...

Rabia Balkhi…Poetess of Balkh (900 AD)...one of the first poets who wrote in modern Persian, and she is, along with Mahsatī Dabīra Ganja'ī, among a very few female writers of medieval Persia to be recorded in history by name...

Kalachakra Prophets: Mehdi, Kalki Avatar and the Messiah...The Kalachakra Tantra appeared in India in the tenth century and was probably written about this time. It predicts the coming of an Islamic Messiah figure named Mahdi...

Arab Conquest of Bactria: Eastward Migrations (725 - 875 AD)...At the time of the Arab Invasion of Bactria in the 800's AD, there was a strong north-eastward migration into Khotan & the Tarim River Basin...

Paropamisadae: Bactrian Caucasus Indicus (6th C. BC)...Paropamisadae......the Greek name for the region south of the Hindu Kush in the southeastern part of present-day Afghanistan. From the sixth to the fourth century B.C., Paropamisadae was part of the Achaemenid empire and the empire of Alexander the Great. It later became part of the Greco-Bactrian and Kushan kingdoms...

Shardza Tashi Gyaltsen: Dzogchen Bon-Buddhist (1859-1934)...an enlightened teacher whose non-sectarian sensibilities were perfectly suited to the times, his critics accused of him of championing an unorthodox movement that transgressed sectarian boundaries and mixed Bön with Buddhism....

Gandharvas, Aspara & Prajnaparamita (1st C. BC)...Prajnaparamita is a goddess of high standing in Mahayana tantric Buddhism; she is considered the sakti, or consort, of the highest Buddha ...

Nuristani People & the Kalash Culture...The Nuristanis are a people whose ancestors practised what was apparently an ancient Indo-Iranian polytheistic Vedic religion until they were conquered and converted to Islam in the late 19th century....

Oracles: Tibet, Greece, Central Asia, Persia...The word "oracle" is used by Tibetans to refer to the spirit, deity, or entity that temporarily possesses enters those men and women who act as media between the phenomenal natural world and the subtle spiritual realms....

Trungpa: Naturalism & Polytheism...Trungpa: Polytheism sounds like group marriage...I prefer the term Naturalism...

Shambhala Vision & Enlightenment...Siddhartha reached out his right hand to touch the earth, and the earth itself roared, "I bear you witness!...

_Sogdiana: Tibet Migration (500 BC)...Bon was introduced to Tibet in the fifth century BC, when there occurred a mass migration of Iranians from Sogdhiana in north-east Iran to the northern parts of Tibet....

May 2013....Random Quotes of Particular Interest...The purpose of the Vajra Caste was not force everyone to convert to Buddhism but for people to re-discover the purity of their own traditions....

Shambhala Arts: Sgra (Sound), Bija, & Melody...My most favorite person in music, Mozart...sat in the sense that his mind became blank before he composed. Some kind of mind-less-ness in the Buddhist sense has to take place...

Shambhala Arts: Sacred Dance & Magical Movement... I am sick to death of the monotheistic string... I prefer the pagan many gods, and the animistic version. Here at this ranch in Taos, looking west over the desert, one knows that all of our Pale-Faced and Hebraic monotheistic insistence is a dead letter....the soul won't answer any more. Here we have a camp under the hanging stars, and we sit with the Indians around the fire, and they sing till late into the night, and sometimes we dance the Indian thread dance.....".....DH Lawrence's primary literary effort was to re-sacralize the world, to awaken in his readers their long lost power to recognize the sacred in themselves and in the living environment....

DNA: Central Asia & The Indigenous American Migrations (15,000 BC)...New Mexico DNA Project.... This DNA lineage is found in North and Central Asian populations as well as native Americans. This lineage is believed to have originated in Central Asia and migrated through the Altai/Baikal region of northern Eurasia into the Americas....

Canyon de Chelly & Kokyangwuti: Spider Woman...The earth has a lot of facets, a lot of gods and warrior gods are still present. They can still be invoked. The deities and worship sites of the Native Americans have always been kept secret. Even with the complete desecration of America these Gods have not been destroyed. We can still visit these sacred sites and perform the appropriate ceremonies, just appreciating what is natural...

Ziggurats & Calahs (kälä) of Central Asia...The Mesopotamians believed that these pyramid temples connected heaven and earth. In fact, the ziggurat at Babylon was known as Etemenankia or "House of the Platform between Heaven and Earth...

Bhojakas (600 AD) & Śākadvīpīya Acharyas...The Bhojakas, (600–700 C.E.), believed that they emanated from the body of their sun god. In India they created a mixed solar religion from the doctrines of the Avesta (the teachings of Zarathustra) and Mahayana Buddhism... they influenced Buddhism primarily with their visions of light. Their “photisms” are said to have especially helped shape the shining figure of the Buddha Amitabha. Since they placed the time god, Zurvan, at the center of their cult, it could also be they who anticipated the essential doctrines of the Kalachakra Tantra...

Heirophants, Gurus, High Priests & Tantric Masters...The title Pontiff comes from the Latin for "bridge builder"...between heaven and earth or between the spiritual world and the temporal one, a possible allusion to a very early role in placating the gods and spirits...

Apsaras, 64 Khandroma' (dakinis) & the Goddesses of Shambala...there are the wild naked girls of Tantric lore, dancing with their ash-smeared bodies and raggedy hair in cremation grounds, drinking blood from human skulls...

Bas-Relief Sculpture & Narrative History (3000 BC)...Bas-relief sculpture was primarily used as a way to tell stories or record major events....

Balkh, Bactria & The Early Development of Mahayana (100 BC)...Navbahar, the main monastery at Balkh became the center of higher Buddhist study for all of Central Asia..... in 630 AD, there were in Balkh about a hundred Buddhist monasteries, with 30,000 monks, and that there was a large number of stupas, and other religious monuments and that Buddhism was flourishing in the Bactrian portion of Western Turk empire...

Bodhidharma the Blue-eyed Persian (5th C. AD)...Bodhidharma is traditionally credited as the transmitter of Ch'an (Zen) to China, and regarded as its first Chinese patriarch....... the Japanese tradition regards Bodhidharma to be from Persia...

Cherchen Man (1000 BC) & Uighur Tarim Tocharians...Cherchen Man is described as: a 3,000 year old male, "6-foot-6-inch giant with Caucasian features", looking "like a Bronze Age European", "a Celt"....

Ancient Bactria & Silk Route Adobe Cities (2000 BC)...Balkh was second to none......A large and prosperous city of mud brick some three square miles in area, it held perhaps 200,000 persons. It was surrounded by mud-brick walls pierced by seven gates...

Thracians, Orphism & the Bacchic Gold Tablets (4th C. BC)...The Orphic Gold Tablets are inscribed with texts in ancient Greek that provide instructions and information to guide the soul of the deceased as it makes its way through the underworld, and to ensure that it receives preferential treatment from the rulers there...

Xembhala (1650 AD) and 'Northern Shambhala'...Catholic missionaries Stephen Cacella and John Cabral were the first Europeans in modern history to give an account of Shambhala in 1650 AD...

Kunlun Mountains & 'Queen Mother of the West' (1700 BC)...For Tibetan Buddhists, the Kunlun region is the site of Shambhala...

The Cosmic Mirror & Aina Khana of Sufism...Rumi.....We are the mirror as well as the face in it.....You would rather throw stones at a mirror?......I am your mirror, and here are the stones....

Pandemonium: The Asura/Deva Split (1500 BC)..."Pandemonium" is Jaan Puhvel's word for the mutual demonization that occurred when the Younger-Avesta demonized the daevas, and the post-Rigvedic texts demonized the asuras. ...

Lha, Nyen, and Lu: Asha, Rta & Natural Hierarchy... Shambhala vision ... broke down into the Taoist tradition and Bon tradition of Tibet, the Islamic tradition of the Middle East, and whatever tradition Russia might have. It has broken into various factions....

Five Pure Lights ('od lnga) & The Six Lamps...In the Bonpo Dzochen tradition, the Five Pure Lights are discussed in the Zhang Zhung Nyan Gyud and two texts in particular go into detail on them as The Six Lamps and The Mirror of the Luminous Mind...

Etymology: Esoteric, Exoteric, Secret, Sacred and Profane...The Buddha described four grades of such person depending on their level of purity....Sotapanna, Sakadagami, Anagami and Arahant...

Asaṅga, Vasubandhu (290 AD) & The Kingdom of Shambhala...Legend reports that Vasubandhu came from the "Kingdom of Shambhala' (approximately, modern Begram, otherwise known as the ancient kingdom of Kapisha, north of Kabul) located in the Afghanistan region, north-west of Peshawar....

Ilm-e-Khshnoom & Esoteric Zoroastrianism...the Zoroastrian Ilm-e-Kshnoom sect identify Mount Davamand as the home of the Saheb-e-Dilan ('Masters of the Heart')....as recently as the 19th century, a peak in the northernmost range in the Hindu Kush system, just south of Balkh, was recorded as Mount Elburz in British army maps....

Sherab Chamma ...Satrig Ersang ...Ardvishura Anahita...In the Zhangzhung language, Sherab Chamma is known as Satrig Ersang, sa trig meaning "wisdom." In the Tazig language of ancient Central Asia she is Ardvishura Anahita.

Pamir Mountains

Achaemenid Persians & Achaean Greeks

Byung rTsis & the Eight Parkha Traditions

Garuda, Khyung & Shang-shang

Chandragupta (Maurya: 340-298 BC)

Chinese Accounts of Ancient Shambhala

Kashmir: Fourth Buddhist Council

Shambhala Vision: Secular vs Sectarian

Word Origin: Sham/Sam & Bhala/Bala

The Blue Pancake & Dzogchen Realization

Shamash, Sams ('Sun"), Shamis en Balkh

Sol Invictus, Mithras, The Great Eastern Sun

Divine Triad of Syrian Gods

The Golden Drink, Haoma/Soma Rituals

Lady Pu-abi (Sumeria...2600 BC)

Royal Tombs of Ur (2500 BC)

Ancient Egypt (3150 BC)

Cyrus The Great (580-529 BC)

Dorje Lingpa (1346- 1405)

Six Lamps: Lhündrub Tögal Bon Dzogchen

Fifteen Stages of A-Khrid Meditation Bon Dzogchen

Twenty-One Nails: Oral Transmission of Zhang Zhung Bon Dzogchen

HOZHO: Navajo Concept of Balance and Beauty Rituals

Sacred Earth Mudra ... Bhumisparsha...Sthāvara

Shen & Yeshen

Druchen Gyalwa Yungdrung (1242-1290)

Way of Nangshen ... Shen of the Visible World

Nine Successive Stages…Nine Yanas

Basic Goodness: The Natural State

Olmo Lungring & Shambhala Geography

Historical Shambhala & Ancient Human Effort

CHOD: Cutting Through Bon Practice

Skandhas: Five Human Attributes

PAWO, Bravery…Spiritual Warrior

Barmakids of Balkh (752 AD)

RIGPA & Non Dual Presence

Ultimate Reality & Genuine Reality

Early Sources ...... 1990's Research Terms

Shambhala & Hvare khshaeta

Kashmir Shaivism & Shambhala

Strirajya: The Land of Women (330 BC)

Uttarakuru & Bactria: Lost City of Gold

Khyungpo Naljor (978-1172 AD) & Bon Dzogchen

DAKINIS: Sky Dancers, Khandroma

Milam: Dream Yoga, Perceived Reality

BEYUL: Sacred Lands & Non-Visible Dimensions

Mahasiddha Lakshminkara: The Crazy Princess of Oddiyana

Crazy Wisdom: Yeshe Chölwa…Wisdom Gone Wild Mahasiddha

KERESANI: Divine Beings Connected w/ Soma

Rishis & Rishikas: Divine Human Beings of Kalachakra

Drung, Deu: Ancient Narrations & Symbolic Languages

Lhak-thong: Fourth Moment Totality

Astrolatry: The Night Sky As A Cosmic Mirror

Ancient Ceremonies, Practices & Rituals

Ancient Cabala, Kabalah, Qabala…Caspian Citadel

CALAH: Nimrud, Babylonian Solar Deity Sham…700 BC

The 96 Satraps of Shambhala Kalachakra

Kalachakra: Suryaratha & The Great Eastern Sun

Shambhala King & Rigden Manjushrí Kírti Kalachakra

Anahita...Sacred Water Element

Xiongnu Kingdom (209 BC)

Ki So Cha'o: Phywa Practice

Amaterasu Omikami: Japanese Sun Goddess

Sham bhala: 'Light of the Sun'

"Sun Worship" in Kalachakra Shambhala

Balkh & Sar-i Sang Lapis Lazuli

Bactria & The Chomarians

Calendars, Astrology, Cycles, Time

Ancient Arkaim (1700 BC)

Sacral Kingship in Ancient Central Asia

Kālá...Theories of Time: Kala Yugas and Kālavāda

Denkart: Sacred Texts in Zoroastrianism

ECBATANA: Persian Cosmic City (800 BC)

Margiana, Margush (1600 BC)

Lokāyata/Cārvāka Materialism (500 BC)

Akbar the Great (1542 –1605 AD)

Tillya Tepe & The Bactrian Treasure (145 BC)

Ancient Cities of Central Asia

Kalachakra Symbolism & Shambhala Kalachakra

'Od zer ...Light Rays, Luminosity…Heart, Eyes, and Space Practice

Ancient Bactria...Photographs

Silver/Gold Sculpture ...Bactria, ca. 2000 BC

Shamis en Balkh ... Photographs

Mahasiddha Tradition in Central Asia

FRAVASHIS: Persian Dralas

Kingdom of Kapisa (500 BC)

The Muslim Conquest of Shambhala (642-870 AD)

Garab Dorje (7th - 8th Century AD?)

Yeshe Tsogyal (757–817) & Oḍḍiyāna

Nestorian Christians in Central Asia

Sexual Cosmology in the Kalachakra Tantra

Russian Shambhala Research

Gurdjieff & Khwajagan Masters of Central Asia

Mleccha, Barbarians, Lalo & Setting Sun Humans

The Great Poet Kshemendra ( 990 – 1070 AD )

Longchenpa's Radical Dzogchen...(1/26/13)

Alexandra David-Neel & Historical Shambhala (January 25, 2013)

Csoma de Körös... Shambhala Research (1833)

Kalki Vidyadhara Kings of Shambhala

Naiman Warriors (1177 AD)

Nine Warrior Gods of Shambhala

Sadanga Yoga, Dark Retreat & Ratriyoga Practice

Shahnameh of Ferdowsi (977 AD)

Sacred Stones: Dzi & Ziji

Musk Route of Tibet/Bactria (8th C. AD)

Jambhala & Kubera: Gods of Wealth in Central Asia

Central Asia: Historical Timetable….40,000 BCE - 800 BC

Yung Drung Bon & Sam bha la (sTag gzigs)

Kalachakra: Military Verses 127- 148

Balkh in the Bronze Age (2500-1500 BC)

Sotung Nangu, Hopi Sky Gods & Shiwa Okar

Rigden King Suchandra of Shambhala (900 BC) Kalachakra

Bactrian Kshatriya Kings & Shambhala (644 AD)

Alexandria on the Caucasus : Kapisa

King Menander (Greek/Bactria: 165- 130 BC)

King Kanishka (Kushan Dynasty 127-151 AD)

Khyunglung Ngülkhar & The Garuda Valley

The Scorpion Seal & Shambhala

Earth Witness Mudra & Sacred Earth Element

Shambhala: The Oxus & Sita Rivers

Navbahar Buddhist Temple: Ancient Fire Temple in Balkh

Shamis en Balkh...The Ancient Kal'ah

Central Asia: Cave Art & Petroglyphs (5000 BC)

TIGER : Central Asian Divine Power

Shambhala Translations: Hermeneutics & Text Interpretation

Natural Perfection ... Pristine Rigpa….Shiwa Okar

Syncretism in Central Asian Silk Route Spiritual Traditions

Alchemy & Transformative Tantra in Central Asia

Sacred Mountains & Shambhala Central Asia

Great Wall of China (700 BC)

Circumambulation Rituals & Peregrination Directions

The Shambhala Vision of Chogyam Trungpa

Poetry & Shambhala Culture

Lamed Thegpa ...Great Perfection Dzogchen

Ohrmazd : Ahura Mazda: Zoroastrian

Fondukistan, Bamiyan, Surkh Kotal

Werma Deities & Shambhala Terma

Tiger,Lion,Garuda,Dragon & Shambhala Terma

Ancient Central Asian Kingdoms & Shambhala Vision

ASHE: the powerful existence arising out of basic goodness

Ancient Scripts & Shambhala Terma Texts

Proto-Indo-Iranian Religion

The Great Eastern Sun: Sharchen Nyima

Ancient Seals, Symbols & Coinage of Shambhala

The Horse & Shambhala

The Rigveda

Buddhism Before Shakyamuni

Magi of Ancient Persia

Archaeology of the Balkh Region

Shambhala: Architecture, Clothing, Diet, Medicine

Central Asia Historical Timetable...5000 BC - 100 AD

Anau Seal in Bactria (2300 BC)

BMAC Culture of Bactria (2300 BC)

Akar Werma, Akar Thegpa & Shenlha Okar

Terma Traditions & Shambala Texts

Airyana Vaeja, Arya Varta & Shambhala

Five Elements in Shamanism & Tantra

The Avestan Texts (600 BC)

The Five Elements: Atar: Sacred Fire...the Gurdjieffian J. G. Bennett published speculation that Shambalha was Shams-e Bhala ... a pre-historic Bactrian sun/fire temple...

Tagzig Olmo Lung Ring & The Kingdom of Shambhala...According to the "gZi-brjid", Olmo Lung-ring was also known as Shambhala in Sanskrit ...

The Hephthalites & Bactria (500 AD)... Balkh came under the Hepthalites (Huns) by the of 4th Century A.D...... Kanishka had been the first Buddhist to rule Balkh. The early Huns worshipped fire and Sun. Subsequently, Hun Kings became followers of Buddhism..

Chan Buddhism, Zen & Shambhala... .Bodhidharma was clearly a Persian Zoroastrian trader, possibly a Mithraist of sorts ...

Cintamani: The Wish Fulfilling Gem...The word "mani" here means "pearl" while "cinta" is "desire, love....

Shambala in the Mahabharata (500 BC)...The Buddhist myth of Shambhala is an adaptation of the earlier Hindu myth of Kalki of Sambhala found in the Mahabharata and the Puranas...

Early Shambhala Researchers (987 AD -1820 AD...etc)... As for 'sham', it could either be connected (for reasons given below) with the Indian God Shiva, if the term is ascribed an Indian origin, or with the word 'Shamash' of Sumerian origin meaning "sun", which comes into modern Arabic as 'shams'....

Greek Buddhism in Bactria (180 BC)....the Mahavamsa, Greek monks seem to have been active proselytizers of Buddhism during the time of Menander ...

Shamis-en-Balkh, Sam-bala & Historical Shambhala... Texts from the Tun huang site identify Oddiyana as "Shamis en Balkh" in modern day Balkh, Afghanistan where many ruins, Buddhist stupas and monasteries existed. Oddiyana was conquered in about 176 B.C......

Okar Research Maps... Ancient Central Asia...Click on the maps to enlarge.....

Ancient Khorasan: Land Where The Sun Rises (2000 BC)... Khorasan was originally inhabited by the ancient Indo-Iranians in the Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex in around 2000 BC....

Ancient Tibet (1196 BC - 950 AD)... as early as the sixth and seventh centuries, a period when the Hephthalites had extensive links with the Tibetans...In 801, Tibetans were active as far west as Balkh, Samarkand and Kabul. Caliphate forces began to gain the upper hand, and the Tibetan governor of Kabul submitted to the Caliphate and became a Muslim about 812 or 815 AD.

Ancient Buddhist Kingdom of Khotan (600 AD)... The ancient Kingdom of Khotan was one of the earliest Buddhist states in the world and a cultural bridge across which Buddhist culture and learning were transmitted from India to China ...

The Tibetan Muslims of Skardu Baltistan...The Gesar epic even seems to have played a small role in the struggle of a Tibetan speaking Muslim people in Pakistan. The Baltistan region, centered around Skardu, is home to some 300,000 people whose mother tongue is Balti, a language of the Tibetan-Ladakhi family. ”We are the only people in this region to have had our own script since the 6th century AD" ...

King Ashoka (Maurya: 324-187 BC)... Ashoka explains he sent emissaries to the Hellenistic kings as far as the Mediterranean, and to people throughout India, claiming they were all converted to the Dharma as a result. He names the Greek rulers of the time, inheritors of the conquest of Alexander the Great, from Bactria to as far as Greece and North Africa, ...

Masculine Deities in Ancient Central Asia (600 BC)...the whole of the macrocosm is kept in being by the Fravashis (Dralas ?), the spiritual powers that are indissolubly linked with each human being and with humanity as a whole....

Zurvanism: Zurwan-Mithra, Sun God and the God of Time (400 BC)...Zurvan... represents White Compassion-Essence. In many Manichaean texts this Father of Light is called Zurvan, the Father of Time. ...

Pamir Mountains and Uighur Khocho (800 AD)... the actual physical location of Shambhala. According to the Dro Tradition a young man, the son of two yoga practioners, heard that boddhisattvas themselves were teaching the Dharma somewhere to the north of India in the country of Shambhala. Eager to learn the Dharma he set out on a journey to find these teachers. Beyond India but before reaching Shambhala, we are told, he encountered a vast desert which would have taken four months to cross.....

The Europoid Yuezhi in Bactria (200 BC)... The Yuezhi may have been a Europoid people, as indicated by the portraits of their kings on the coins they struck following their exodus to Transoxiana (2nd–1st century BCE)...

Shamanism in Ancient Central Asia (500 BC)... one of the ways the Buddhist schools of Tibet (and the Christian missionaries of North America) attempted to suppress Indigenous Tibetan Religion, was by accusing Bon practitioners of being ‘intellectually uncivilized’ – of being mere primitive shamans. ...

Taoism & Ancient Shambhala (600 BC - 600 AD)...Shambhala is the Central Asian kingdom.......a sane society developed out of that culture, and we are trying to emulate that vision. That particular system broke down into the Taoist tradition ...

Japanese Shinto & Ancient Shambala (6th C. BC)... After the Meiji Imperial Restoration of 1868, the new government purged Shinto of Buddhist elements, or ordered to clearly segregate Buddhism from Shinto.....Buddhist effigies were ordered to be removed from Shinto shrines and all traces of Buddhism were purged from the imperial household.....

Gandharan Style Greek - Buddhist Art (5th C. BC - 5th C. AD)...Trungpa Rinpoche said that the thangkas in Tibet had really lost it..... But he really totally admired Gandharan style ...

Confucius & the Shambhala Tradition (551–479 BCE)...Chögyam Trungpa incorporated elements from numerous traditions into the Shambhala Path that he thought would be beneficial to practitioners: From Confucianism comes a framework of Heaven, Earth, and Man, and the Court Principle for understanding the proper relationship between different elements of society ...

Kingdom of Gandhāra (1st-5th C. AD)...Gandhāra is noted for the distinctive Gandhāra style of Buddhist art, which developed out of a merger of Greek, Syrian, Persian, and Indian artistic influence. ...

Fravashis, Zhidag, Gandharvas, Dralas...Tibetan Buddhists believe that there are countless types of beings other than humans and animals. Some are more powerful, happier, and more intelligent than humans, and others less so. Usually if there is no common karma or karmic connection, beings of different types will not encounter each other....

Shiwa Okar, Shenlha Okar and Akar Werma...In the Bon tradition, King Gesar of Ling is sent to Tibet by Shenlha Okar, and Trungpa Rinpoche's blending of native traditions and Indian Buddhism appears to echo Mipham's....

'Od gSal Lha & The Shambhala Deities... Ölmo Lungring or Shambhala, this imperishable sacred land, which is the spiritual center of the world, existed on earth from the very beginning of the human race. It was the place where the celestial gods of the Clear Light (`od gsal lha) descended from heaven to earth in order to take up incarnation as human beings and ensoul the physical bodies which had been prepared for them....

Vajra Caste, Secular Shambhala & The Kalachakra...The purpose of the Vajra Caste was not force everyone to convert to Buddhism but for people to re-discover the purity of their own traditions. ...

Rimé Movement & Non-Sectarianism (19th C. AD)... In the 19th century, a movement funded by the secular authorities in Derge, Kham began to establish centers of learning encouraging the study of traditions different from the dominant Gelug tradition in central Tibet....

Feminine Deities in Ancient Central Asia...Unlike Buddhism, whose deities are generally genderless or male, the Shintō tradition has long revered the female element. The emperor of Japan, even today, claims direct decent from the Shintō Sun Goddess Amaterasu. ...

Ancient Historians in Bactria (400 BC).."Khorasan" is derived from Middle Persian khor (meaning "sun") and asan (or ayan literally meaning "to come" or "coming" or "about to come"), hence meaning "land where the sun rises"..

Ancient Historians in Bactria (400 BC).."Khorasan" is derived from Middle Persian khor (meaning "sun") and asan (or ayan literally meaning "to come" or "coming" or "about to come"), hence meaning "land where the sun rises"..

Balkh and the Genghis Khan Destruction (1220 AD)..Kublai Khan told Marco Polo: 'The Christians worship Jesus, the Saracens worship Mohammed, the Jews worship Moses and the idolaters worship Sakyamuni Burkhan..

Ancient China & the Four Sons of Heaven... Gesar's traditional four enemies were China to the East, India to the South, Tag zig (Persia) to the west, and Hor to the North...

Greek/Bactrian Buddhism (200 BC)... the Gandharan school of art that emerged in north-west India is that it has been clearly influenced by the naturalism of the Classical Greek style. Thus, while these images still convey the inner peace that results from putting the Buddha's doctrine into practice, they also give us an impression of people who walked and talked, etc. and slept much as we do...

King Gesar...Phrom and Tazig (743 AD)...the Four Sons of Heaven, the rulers of the four great countries of the Asiatic world: China, India, Iran, Throm (Phrom) in the north with King Gesar...

Shambhala: Tribes, Clans and Castes...Tonpa Shenrab was born at the palace Barpo Sogye of Tagzig Olmo Lung Ring. His father was Gyalbon Thodkar of the Mu clan ...

gZi-brjid: The Ziji & Shenrab Miwo (1847 BC?)...The work of Shenrap still exists in Tibet in the form of 400 volumes, but it has undergone heavy Buddhist editing.

Nava Vihara in Balkh: Sun Temple/Fire Temple/Monastery/Mosque..Navbahar (also known as Nava Vihara) was a Buddhist stupa or monastery near the ancient city of Balkh in northern Afghanistan. The temple may have been an old Zoroastrian fire-temple...

Etymology: Sakya, Shaka, Shakya, Saka, Sacae...Dawa Zangpo was the first of the seven "SHAKYA" kings of Shambhala....

Shambhala Research....Partial References ...November 2012

Pliny the Elder (23 AD) & Bactrian Geography...Balkh, is the name given to Zariasta....town is Zariasta, which was afterwards called Bactra, from the river.......

Chitral & Oddiyana Kashmir... the birth place of Garab Dorje not simply as 'Uddiyana' but as being close to Lake Kutra in the region of Dhanakosha; thus indicating present day North-eastern Kashmir (now Pakistan) - a region right in the middle between Chitral, Gilgit and Swat. ..

The Kalash People & Ancient Shambhala...Kalash has ancient Bactrian Roots, it resisted the Muslim takeover for 800 years..

Tantra in Central Asia (400 AD) ....Tantric movements led to the formation of many esoteric schools of Hinduism and Buddhism. It has influenced the Hindu, Sikh, Bön, Buddhist, and Jain religious traditions

Kalkin Kings of Sambhala (277 BC)..... the Vidyadhara indicated that the Shambhala terma had originated with the Rigden Kings, Shiwa Ökar, or Gesar of Ling....

Rigden Kings of Shambhala (881 BC)..... KALACHAKRA...(dus kyi khor lo)...Taught by the Buddha to Dawa Sangpo in 881 BC...

Ancient Languages & Linguistics of Bactria..... Bactrian could legitimately have been ranked amongst the world's most important languages. As the language of the Kushan kings, Bactrian must have been widely known throughout a great empire....

The Parsee of India & Shambhala ....Followers of Ilm-e-Kshnoom in India believe in reincarnation and practice vegetarianism, two principles unknown to Orthodox Zoroastrianism.

Shambhala and the Kingdom of Oddiyana ....places where Vajrayana teachings are preserved and taught. Uddiyana is one such realm, and it is said that it is located somewhere in what is now known as Pakistan.

Sacred Feminine & Ancient Shambhala ....the female protectress of Balkh, Anahita goddess of the Oxus

Human Feminine & Ancient Shambhala "..hair like the petals of the Utpala flower, eyes like the fruit of the indigo, brow is of the greatest serenity and full like the moon, eyebrows of wide arch and like the letter o, cheeks are of clear color and like blood-red rubies in a cup of ivory,..."

Kingdom of Zhang-zhung & Shambhala ..Olmolungring (Shambhala?) was northwest of Mt Kailas, twice as far from it as the peak is from Shigatse, a major town in central Tibet. (Newman, 1985).....(i.e.. 1200 Miles?)....

Indo-Europeans & Indo-Aryans in Bactria (2500 - 1500 BC) ..Bactria was a homeland of Indo-European tribes who moved south-west into Iran and into North-Western India around 2500–2000 BCE.....

Alexander The Great in Bactria ( 334 BC) ..Alexander was more concerned with conquering the Earth than touching the earth...

Mithraism & The Eye of Mithra (1400 BC) ..Mithra is young. His eye is the sun. The rays of the sun are his arms. He wears glistening garments. His abode is golden. He is a king and a universal monarch. Mithra is ever waking and watches in darkness....

Early Buddhism in Balkh (563 BC) ..Trapusa and Bahalika from Balkh in Afghanistan, are attributed to be the first two lay disciples of the Buddha....

Padmasambhava (732 AD) & Chakdara, Pakistan .. Padmasambhava from Uddiyana (Bactria)....nothing is really reported concerning Padmasambhava’s life in Kashmir..... In Kashmir he earned the name Sthiramati, ‘the Youthful Genius.’....

Mani & the Manichaeans (216-274 AD) ..One of the main principles of the Manichaeans was a vegetarian diet of mainly green and yellow foods.......

The Shambhala Path and The Kalachakra .."Do Shambhala Training students have to become Buddhists at some point to continue?” He said, “No, Shambhala Training is a complete path to enlightenment–it has view, meditation, action."......

The Shambhala Path & The Bon Tradition ..Chögyam Trungpa incorporated elements from numerous traditions into the secular Shambhala path... elements in the Bön tradition worth exploring: Shenlha Okar practices and abishekas, the Nine Lha who created existence out of non-existence, the Werma & Dralha deities of Mt Kailas, the Zhangzhung Kingdom, Shenrab Miwo's Iranian origins, and the numerous Bonpo Sang & Enrichment Rituals......

Zarathustra, Zoroastrianism & Balkh (6th C. BC) ..Ancient Bactrians....prior to Islam would pray five times per day ....but, contrary to the Muslims, they would pray in the direction of the Sun and/or to the Fire Temple........

Origins of Sufism & Ancient Bactria ...The Sufis will often say that Sufism came before Islam and there will be Sufism after Islam too. This is the spirit of Balkh, an enduring ancient legacy fed by diverse streams of influence over the last 2500+ years......

Shambhala Vision & Dzogchen ..Dzogchen did not originate in Tibet itself, but had a Central Asian origin and was subsequently brought to Central Tibet by certain masters known as Mahasiddhas or great adepts..

Kingdom of Shambala & the Moslem Conquest (670-870 AD) ..Bactria was especially important between 600 BC and 600 AD, serving as a meeting place not only for overland trade between East and West but also for the crosscurrents of religious and artistic ideas..

BACTRIA, Tagzig, Khorasan, Paktra, Zariaspa, Vahilka & Shambhala ..Walled palace cities existed in 900 BC near the present sites of Termez, Merv (Gyaur-Kala), Samarkand, Afrasiab and Bactra (Balk) in southern Bactria.

Bactria: Land of a Thousand Cities ..The Aryans first settled on the Oxus (AMU DARYA in BACTRIA) around 4000 B.C. They called this river the Sarasvati and here Vedic culture developed. ..Beginning of the famed Bactrian Empire of a thousand cities, wallowing in wealth....

Historical Timetable of Bactria Region (100 AD - Present) ..Alexandra David-Neel, in her script "Les Nouvelles Littéraires", says that Shamballa is geographically placed near the ancient city of Balkh.

Swat Valley, Dankanoshka Lake and Padmasambhava ...Padmasambhava is said to have been born in a village near the present day town of Chakdara in Lower Dir District, Pakistan, which was then a part of Oddiyana..

Ancient Balkh ....Bahlika, Daxia, Altyn-Depe, Paktra ...The Oxus civilization was a Bronze Age Central Asian culture dated to ca. 2300–1700 BC and centered on the upper Amu Darya (Oxus River)..

Ancient Bactria Region ...Bactria, by some writers, is called "the pride of Ariana". The ancient local citizen called it "Bactria the beautiful". Bactria was popular for its fertility.

Great Khorasan Road & The Silk Route ... "Khorasan" is derived from Middle Persian khwar (meaning "sun") and āsān (or ayan literally meaning "to come" or "coming" or "about to come"), hence meaning "land where the sun rises"

Bactra (Balkh) in Bactria Map ...Bactria was the homeland of Indo-European tribes who moved south-west into Iran and into North-Western India around 2500–2000 BC.

Ancient Balkh from Google Earth ...The palace of Balkh was once decorated with silk, gold, and gemstones. Bactria was known as the Land of a Thousand Cities....each with a Calah (Castle, Kala) and a King.

Carte du Coeur Humain

Shamis en Balkh ... Bactra, The Mother of All Cities ... in 630 AD, there were in Balkh about a hundred Buddhist monasteries, with 30,000 monks, and a large number of stupas....The Nava Vihara Monastery was it is said build on an old fire-temple called Sam-i-bhala (Elevated Candle).

Ai Khanum...Alexandria on Oxus (4th c. BC) ..Perhaps the greatest of the "thousand cities of Bactria", known to us today as Ai Khanoum was built where the Oxus (Amu Darya) and Kokcha Rivers meet in northern Afghanistan..

First Google Blogger Post......October 31, 2012

Shamis-en-balkh and Historical Shambhala.......640 Posts to May 2014

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Email....okarresearch@gmail.com

John Hopkins.....Northern New Mexico

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Research Notes....May - July 2014

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Email....okarresearch@gmail.com

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Mahajanapada: Sixteen Great Kingdoms (1500-500 BC)...Between 1500 and 500 B.C., 16 city-states that are known as Mahajanapadas emerged in the Indian subcontinent from the west in modern Afghanistan to the east in Bangldesh....

Lhamo Youdrönma.....Goddess of the Turquoise Lamp...During the rituals called létsok, or activity practices, a deity is invoked - a yidam or Dharma protector - and highly accomplished practitioners can ask them questions. Their answers appear in a mirror. Trungpa Rinpoché’s deity for this practice was the deity Lhamo Youdrönma, Goddess of the Turquoise Lamp. ...

Hadda: Greco-Buddhist Archeological Site (2nd C. BC) ...Some 23,000 Greco-Buddhist sculptures, both clay and plaster, were excavated in Haḍḍa during the 1930s and the 1970s. The findings combine elements of Buddhism and Hellenism in an almost perfect Hellenistic style...

Mount Khwajeh, Lake Hamun & Ancient Sistan (2nd C. BC)..._Ancient geographers of Iran divided Iran ("Iran-Shahr") into eight segments of which the most flourishing and largest was the territory of Greater Khorasan. Esfarayen, among other cities of the province, was one of the focal points for residence of the Aryan tribes after entering Iran....

Blessing: Baraka, Adhiṣṭhāna & Chinlap...Baraka is an ancient Sufi word, which can be translated "as a blessing, or the breath, or the essence of life from which the evolutionary process unfolds...

Chinese Explorer Zhang Qian in Bactria (126 BC) ….The people are settled on the land, cultivating the fields and growing rice and wheat. They also make wine out of grapes. They have walled cities like the people of Dayuan (Ferghana), the region contains several hundred cities of various sizes...Their civilization was urban, almost identical to the civilizations of Anxi and Dayuan, and the population was numerous....

An Shigao: Prince of Parthia & First Chinese Buddhist Translator (c. 148-180 AD) ….An Shigao was a prince of the kingdom of Anxi in present-day northeastern Iran. He was famed for honoring his parents and having broad knowledge in astrology, medicine, and sacred texts. After his father’s death, he gave up his throne and became a Buddhist monk. He translated thirty-five texts from the Theravada and Mahayana schools of Buddhism, including works on meditation, psychology, and techniques of breath control. An Shih-kao is the first Buddhist missionary to China....

Ānāpānasmṛti Sūtra... Buddhist Breath Awareness Meditation (160 AD) ….The Ānāpānasmṛti Sūtra (Sanskrit), "Breath-Mindfulness Discourse," is a discourse that details the Buddha's instruction on using awareness of the breath (anapana) as a focus for meditation.

Sufi Prayer of the Heart & Breath Awareness Meditation (Khorasan: 1200 AD) ….Zikr-i-Qalbi...Pas Anfas, in Persian, means guarding every breath..... Zikr is performed with the heart using breath as the medium.

The Khwajagan Sufi Masters & Balkh (8th C. AD) ….In Balkh, Bokhara and also in the Hindu Kush a new “inner circle” of initiates was established. These great initiates were known as the Khwajagan (Persian for "Masters").

Begram ... Kapisa ... Alexandria of the Caucasus (320 BC) ….the Kingdom of Uddiyana was divided between two countries....to the North, it bordered on the land of Shambhala (i.e., the Kingdom of Kapisa.

Parwan & Panjshir Valleys ... Ghorband River & Village of Sambala ...John Wood (1839)…."Late in the evening we arrived... at the bottom of a deep valley, along which was scattered a village named Sambala.....we emerged a short time later, into the Parwan Valley.

Ya'qub al-Saffar (840 – 879) & the Islamic Conquest (870 AD) ...The Islamic conquest of Afghanistan (642–870) began in the middle of the 7th century after the Islamic conquest of Persia was completed, .

al-Mahdi, the Samanids & the Conquest of Shambhala (870 AD) ..Caliph al-Mahdi (775-785 CE).... had the same name as the last prophet in the Kalachakra list.

Patrul Rinpoche: Oddiyana & the Sita River ..Obaid allah crossed the Sita River (aka: Kabul River) and made a raid on Kabul... marks the first time that the Kingdom of Shambhala actually came under Moslem domination.

King Takna Ziji & the fortresses of Tiger Leopard King of Wealth ..Takzik Nordzong is one of the fortresses of Tiger Leopard King of Wealth (Takzig Norgi Gyelpo), an invader who is supposed to have come from the northwest (Indo-Iranic borderlands or Central Asia)...

Ngari, Ü-Tsang and the Guge Kingdom (947 AD) ..Atisha spent thirteen years in Ngari and U-Tsang. He is credited with the propagation of the Lamrim and Lojong teachings...

Werma Deity Texts & Tertons Ponse Khyung Gotsal (1175) & Rigzin Gödem (1337) ....two mythical narrations on warrior deities (dgralha/ sgra bla/ dgra bla).... one from a Bonpo Terma text and the second from the “Old” (Rnying ma) tradition of Tibetan Buddhism. ...

Khyungsprul Rinpoche (1897-1919) & the Rimé Movement in Ngari .... he was the instigator of the return of Bonpo traditions to the ancient land of Zhang zhung in mNga' ris. Very significantly, he showed a particular interest for the remote Kinnaur valley." ...

Seventeen Dzogchen Tantras & The Cina Valley (8th C.)Sri Simha deposited copies of the first three Dzogchen cycles in a rock cut crypt beneath the Bodhivriksha Temple of Sugnam in the land of Cina, near Mt Kailasa, south of Western Tibet (below Suvarnadwipa), comprising modern Kinnaur, which was known in ancient times as the valley of Cina...

King Barhatakin, the Odiyana Shahi & Phrom Gesar (738 AD)"Phrom Gesar...received this laudatory epithet because he was successful at holding back the Muslim conquerors."....

Zhangzhung (Zanzun) ... Phug-pa/Bactria ... The Kingdom of ZunPhug pa ....Inner Shang Shung..... three month-walk from Mt Kailash westwards...The inner region is said to be sTag-gzig (Tazig) ...often identified with Bactria.......

Sutleg River, Mt Kailash & Lake RakshastalIt is interesting to note that Manasarovar does not receive any water directly from Mt Kailas. It is Rakshas Tal that does...

Zhangzhung: The Outer, Inner and Middle Regions Zhang Zhung consisted "of three different regions: sGob-ba, the outer; Phug-pa, the inner; and Bar-ba, the middle. ...

The Royal Seal of the Last King of Zhangzhung"Wielding Power over the World of Sensual Pleasures, King of Life"...

Kinnaur: Hindu/Buddhist/Bonpos & the Nine Dabla GodsThe Nine dabla (da.bla) ...Brothers and Sisters Gods, are said to have come from Tibet....

Jangshung Language of Kinnauri & Zhang-ZhungA modern Kinnauri language called by the same name (pronounced locally Jangshung) is spoken by 2,000 people in the Sutlej Valley of Himachal Pradesh who claim to be descendants of the Zhangzhung....

Kingdom of Suvarnadwipa & Zang-zung..Zang-zung or Suvarnadwipa was an ancient Indo-European nation, said to have been ruled by a royal lineage of women...

The Kinnaur Valley & Kalpa..In the ancient mythology the people of Kinnaur are known as Kinners, the halfway between men and gods..

Shri Singha & the Kinnaur Valley (8th C.)...…To fully appreciate Sri Simha's background we must briefly digress into the geography of a mysterious seventh century Himalayan country called Suvarnadwipa and its southern neighbour, the Kinnaur Valley.

The Beacon of Certainty ... Mipham Gyamtso (1846–1912)...…Mipham the Great wrote 'Beacon of Certainty', a compelling defense of Dzogchen that employs the very logic it was criticized as lacking.

Click on Map To Enlarge

Patrul Rinpoche (1808-1887) ... 'Advice From Me to Myself'...…'If you let go of everything — Everything, everything — That's the real point!'

Terms Dzogchen...…

Miscellaneous Terms A - C...…Authentic Presence, Ancestral Sovereigns, Asha & Ashe, Auspicious Coincidence, Basic Goodness, Chao, Cosmic Egg, Crystal Iconography

Miscellaneous Terms D - G...…Drala/Dralha, Dzogchen, Emptiness, Five Elements, Gaze, Great Eastern Sun

Miscellaneous Terms H - M...…Heart, Juniper, Khatvanga, Ki Ki So So, Khvarenah, La, Love, Light, Mind, Cosmic Mirror, Magic, Marriage, Mu Cord

Miscellaneous Terms N - R...…Natural Hierarchy, Natural State, Non-aggression, Passion, Presence, Primordial Purity, Purification, Renunciation, Richness, Rigpa

Miscellaneous Terms S - Z...….Post # 613 ... Sacred Outlook, Setting Sun, Secular, Siddhi, Sky Gazing, Space, Square One, Sacred Space, Sounds, lights, and rays, La of sound, Spiritual junkyard, Yung Drung, Non-theisism, Thekchod, Thodgal, Visualization, Trust, Primordial water, Wheel of birth, White Light of A, Wind, Windhorse, Xratu, Xvarenah, Yang, Ziji

The Nyingmapa Tradition (742 AD)..From the eighth until the eleventh century, the Nyingma was the only school of Buddhism in Tibet.....….

Mantra, Mathra, Incantare, Dharani..Tibetans visiting Dzungar officials were forced to stick their tongues out so the Dzungars could tell if the person recited constant mantras, which was said to make the tongue black or brown. This allowed them to pick the Nyingmapas and Bonpos, who recited many magic-mantras....….

Sipe Gyalmo, Sipaimen, Sipai Gyalmo Sidpa Gyalmo, Srid-pa’i Gyal-mo..Sipai Gyalmo has a complex iconography, and pantheon of manifestations, but is usefully summarized as a deep azure blue, wrathful deity who is pre-Buddhist in origin, and is a direct emanation of Shes-rab byams-ma, the Great Goddess.….

The Kalpa Sūtra (400 BC) & Jain Kālachakra...The Kalachakra refers to many different traditions, for example the Hindu; Saivite, Samkya, Vaishnava, the Vedas, Upanisads and Puranas traditions, but also Jainism….

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