Friday, November 15, 2013

Okar Research: Table of Contents (M-Z)


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Magi of Ancient Persia…. Greek magos itself is derived from Old Persian maguŝ from the Avestan magâunô



Mongol Destruction of Balkh (1200 AD)


Musk Route of Tibet…. (8th C. AD)

Maitreya, Mithra & The Saoshyant

Manichaeism & Tibetan Bon

Mother and Child Luminosities

Magi of Tagzig Persia….Bon religion came from the fabled land of Olmo-lungring (‘Ol-mo lung-ring) on the eastern edge of Tagzig (sTag-gzig)….Some modern Russian scholars, basing themselves on linguistic analysis, identify Olmo-lungring with Elam in ancient western Iran and Tagzig with Tajik, referring to Bactria.

Magic, The Magus & Magi of Central Asia…Magi (Latin plural of magus; Greek: μάγος magos; Old Persian: maguš, Persian: مُغ‎ mogh; English singular magian, mage, magus, magusian, magusaean; Kurdish: manji) is a term, used since at least the 6th century BC, to denote followers of Mazdaism or Zoroaster. The earliest known usage of the word Magi is in the trilingual inscription written by Darius the Great, known as the Behistun Inscription.

Mahasiddha Tilopa & Uddiyana…Tilopa received the transmissions of Dzogchen in Oddiyana

Mahasiddha Traditions… ( Sanskrit: “great perfect one”) Tibetan Grub-thob Chen, in the Tantric, or esoteric, traditions of India and Tibet, a person who, by the practice of meditative disciplines, has attained siddha (miraculous powers); a great magician…..Both the Shaivites (followers of Shiva) of Hindu India and the Tantric Buddhists of Tibet preserve legends of 84 mahasiddhas who flourished up to the 11th century.

Mahayana in Central Asia….The Fourth Buddhist Council is said to have been convened by the Kushan emperor Kanishka (r. 127-151 CE), in Kashmir….. reports of this council can be found in scriptures which were kept in the Mahayana tradition.

Mani & the Manichaeans….Mani (in Middle Persian Māni and Syriac Mānī, Greek Μάνης, Latin Manes; also Μανιχαίος, Latin Manichaeus, from Syriac Mānī ḥayyā "Living Mani", c. 216–274 AD), of Iranian origin,was the prophet and the founder of Manichaeism, a gnostic religion of Late Antiquity

Masculine Deities…While many Hindus focus upon impersonal Absolute, Brahman which is of neuter gender grammatically, there are prominent Hindu traditions that conceive Gods as both female and male.

Masmoghân …. the chief Magian and supreme religious leader of ancient Iran

Materialism…Lokāyata and Cārvāka have historically been used to denote the philosophical school of Indian Materialism. Literally, “Lokāyata” means philosophy of the people. The term was first used by the ancient Buddhists until around 500 B.C.E. to refer to both a common tribal philosophical view and a sort of this-worldly philosophy or nature lore. The term has evolved to signify a school of thought that has been scorned by religious leaders in India and remains on the periphery of Indian philosophical thought. After 500 B.C.E., the term acquired a more derogatory connotation and became synonymous with sophistry.

Melong, Mirror…Melong is a Tibetan term that means "mirror", "looking glass". The melong is a polyvalent symbol, divine attribute, and quality of the enlightened mindstream or bodhicitta.

Median Empire 700 BC….King Deioces founded the Median Empire in 728 BC.

Mithraism & The Eye of Mithra …Who has ten thousand eyes, the exalted one, Who has wide knowledge, the helpful one, Who sleeps not, the ever wakeful.

Mithras in the Greek Magical Papyri Rituals…papyri from Graeco-Roman Egypt, which each contain a number of magical spells, formulae, hymns and rituals. The materials in the papyri date from the 2nd century BC to the 5th century AD.

Mleccha' and Shambhala…Mleccha (from Vedic Sanskrit म्लेच्छ mleccha, meaning "non-Vedic", "barbarian"), also spelt as Mlechchha, referred to people of foreign extraction in ancient India. Mleccha was used by the ancient Indians much as the ancient Greeks used barbaros, originally to indicate the uncouth and incomprehensible speech of foreigners and then extended to their unfamiliar behaviour

Mount Mashu & The Scorpion Seal…Gilgamesh reached Mount Mashu, which daily guards the rising and setting of the Sun,……there were Scorpion-beings watching over its gate.

Mt Meru, Mt Harā, Yungdrung Gutsek & The Pamirs…Mount Meru (Sanskrit: मेरु), also called Sumeru (Sanskrit) or Sineru (Pāli) or Kangrinboqe to which is added the approbatory prefix su-, resulting in the meaning "excellent Meru" or "wonderful Meru" and Mahameru i.e. "Great Meru" (Chinese: 須彌山, Japanese: 須弥山 Shumi-sen, Pāli Neru), is a sacred mountain in Hindu, Jain as well as Buddhist cosmology and is considered to be the center of all the physical, metaphysical and spiritual universes.

Mt Noshaq & the Kalasha Valleys…Noshaq is Afghanistan's highest mountain and is located in the northeastern corner of the country…. It is the westernmost 7,000 m (22,966 ft) peak in the world. Easiest access to Noshaq is from Chitral, Pakistan.

Mu Cord (dmu thag) & Rainbow Body (Jalü)…The Tibetan kings were said to remain connected to the heavens via a dmu cord (dmu thag) so that rather than dying, they ascended directly to heaven

Mukpo & the Black Headed People… I have kept the name Mukpo as my family name, my identity, my pride


Niguma, Lady of Illusion (11th C.)

Natural Perfection ... Pristine Rigpa….Dzogchen has been practised throughout the centuries by masters of all the different schools as their innermost practice. Its origins reach back to before human history, and neither is it limited to Buddhism, nor to Tibet, nor indeed even to this world of ours, as it is recorded that it has existed in thirteen different world systems.

Naturalism & Paganism…Paganism is a broad group of indigenous and historical polytheistic religious traditions

Navajo and Tibetan Sacred Wisdom…The similarity between the Navajo and Tibetan spiritual traditions has often been remarked upon by scholars……Peter Gold substantiates the shared knowledge of these seemingly disparate people by drawing extensive parallels among many aspects of both cultures: creation myths, cosmology, geomancy, psychology,

Navbahar Buddhist Stupa, Balkh….Navbahar (also known as Nava Vihara) was a Buddhist stupa or monastery near the ancient city of Balkh in northern Afghanistan. The temple may have been an old Zoroastrian fire-temple, or it may have been converted to a Zoroastrian temple.

Nestorian Christians ….Nestorianism….the diffusion of the Church of the East in and after the 7th century spread it widely across Asia.

Nikbanou & Chak Chak…. Nikbanou, the youngest daughter of the last king of the Persian Empire, took shelter in the mountain and prayed to Ahura Mazda for help from the Arab attackers. Miraculously, the mountain opened up and gave her protection.

Nine Gods of Shambhala… in a past age there were three brothers, Dagpa (Dag-pa), Selba (gSal-ba) and Shepa (Shes-pa), who studied the Bön doctrines in the heaven named Sridpa Yesang (Srid-pa Ye-sangs), under the Bön sage Bumtri Logi Chechen (`Bum-khri gLog-gi lCe-can)….When they had completed their studies they visited the God of Compassion Shenlha Ökar (gShen-lha `Od-dkar) and asked him how they could help living beings who are submerged in the misery and sorrow of suffering. Shenlha Ökar advised them to act as guides to mankind in three successive ages of the world.

Nine Successive Stages…."Thegpa Rimgu'i Bon (Theg pa rim dgu'i Bon), "The Bon of the Nine Successive Stages [or simply] 'The Nine Ways of Bon'". The first four are the cause (rGyud kyi theg pa) the next four are the ways of result ('Bras bu'i theg pa) and the ninth is the Great Perfection (rDzogs chen).

Non-Visible Beings & Non-Ordinary Reality…Shamans share a basic conception of ordinary & non-ordinary reality, and they moving in and between these two worlds.

Nuristani People….The Nuristani people are an Indo-Iranian-speaking ethnic group native to the Nuristan region of eastern Afghanistan. The Nuristanis are a people whose ancestors practised what was apparently an ancient Indo-Iranian polytheistic Vedic religion until they were conquered and converted to Islam

Nālandā & Nava Vihara…Nālandā was an ancient center of higher learning in Bihar, India from the fifth century AD to 1197 AD…..Nava Vihara, the main monastery at Balkh, soon became the center of higher Buddhist study for all of Central Asia, comparable to Nalanda Monastery in central northern India.

Naiman Warriors…. (1177 AD)

Naturalism & Paganism….

Nava Vihara….


OXUS River….


Ohrmazd : Ahura Mazda….Zoroaster exhorts his followers to pay reverence to only the ahuras, and to rebuff the daevas.

Olmo Lung-ring & Shambhala…. Olmo Lungring or Shambhala, this imperishable sacred land, which is the spiritual center of the world, existed on earth from the very beginning of the human race.

Orissa & the Indo-European Migration (1500 BC)

Ösel and Śūnyatā

ORACLES: Tibet, Greece, Central Asia, Persia….The Dalai Lama, who lives in exile in northern India, still consults an oracle known as the Nechung Oracle, which is considered the official state oracle of the government of Tibet.

Od gSal Lha & Shambhala Deities…'od gsal lha….1) divine luminosity; 2) luminous deity, type of lha

Oddiyana: The Śākta Pīṭha….The Shakti Peethas (Sanskrit: शक्ति पीठ, Śakti Pīṭha, seat of Shakti) are places of worship consecrated to the goddess Shakti or Sati, the female principal...

Origins of Dzogchen…..1,800 years later, Mucho Dem Drug organized and classified the entire teaching of Tonpa Shenrab into four categories….the forth category, ‘mDzod’ consists of the teachings on Dzogchen meditation practices.

Origins of Sufism…Zoroastrianism and Sufism have the same origin, Sufism definitely predates Islam in Iran.

Origins of the I Ching…Traditionally, the I Ching and its hexagrams were thought to pre-date recorded history, and based on traditional Chinese accounts, its origins trace back to the 3rd to the 2nd millennium BCE.

Orphism & the Bacchic Gold Tablets…..Orphic views and practices are attested as early as Herodotus, Euripides, and Plato. The recently published Derveni papyrus allows Orphic mythology to be dated back to the 4th century BCE, and it is probably even older.


Persian Origins of Japanese Buddhism

PAWO, Bravery…Pawo (Wylie: dpa' bo; literally "brave guy") is translated "hero" or "warrior"…the Sanskrit terms daka and vira, with similar meaning…..Pawos are typically described in consort with khandros, their feminine counterparts

PHROM GESAR & Bactria…Tazig: appears to signify Persia. 13 days horseback ride from Ling, at a place called Memoyu Thang." ….The Superhuman Life of Gesar of Ling. by; Alexandra David-Neel:

Padmasambhava & Oḍḍiyāna….Padmasambhava lived over 1,300 years ago…. Lake Dhanakosha, in the kingdom of Oḍḍiyāna—that's in present-day Pakistan.

Pandemonium: The Asura/Deva Separation…Panic, Pandemonium, Pandemic, are derived from this Greek legend.

Parsee & Shambhala…Parsis descend from a group of Zoroastrians from Greater Iran who immigrated to Gujarat in western India during the 8th or 10th century to avoid persecution by Muslim invaders

Pas-Anfaas & Kashmiri Sufism/Shaivism…Pas Anfas, which, in Persian, means guarding every breath. Zikr is performed with the heart using breath as the medium.

Persian Warrior Gods….In the ancient Persian tradition, fravashis were powerful supernatural beings able to protect their descendants if duly worshipped.

Plato: Basic Goodness & The Great Eastern Sun…..Socrates and Plato are concerned with our ability to understand "the Good." In place of the many specific examples of goodness which govern many of our lives, they want us to break free of society's assumptions and to grasp the Good for ourselves (the "absolute" good)

Poet Kshemendra (990 – 1070 AD)….Kshemendra (c. 990 – c. 1070 CE) was a Kashmirian poet of the 11th century, writing in Sanskrit.

Poetess Rabia Balkhi… the first poetess in the history of New Persian poetry. References to her can be found in the poetry of Rūdakī and 'Attār… she was a native of Balkh in Khorāsān (now in Afghanistan). Some evidences indicate that she lived during the same period as Rūdakī, the court poet to the Samanid Emir Naṣr II (914-943).

Poetry & Shambhala….Chogyam is spinning, watching the spinning/samsara….If there is no Samsara/spinning there is no chogyam

Proto-Indo-Iranian Religions… the religion of the Indo-Iranian peoples prior to the earliest Vedic (Indo-Aryan) and Zoroastrian (Iranian) scriptures. These share a common inheritance of concepts including the universal force *rta (Vedic rta, Avestan asha)

Puranas & The Kalachakra Texts…The Samba Purana (Sanskrit: साम्ब पुराण, Sāmba Purāṇa) is one of the Saura Upapuranas. This text is dedicated to Surya… in Mitravana on the banks of the Chandrabhaga…..comprises a number of narratives dealing with creation, details of solar system, eclipses, geography of the earth, description of Surya and his attendants, construction of images of these deities, details of yoga, manners and customs, rites and rituals, dissertations of mantras and dana

Purusha, Platonic Solids and Prana…Purusha (Sanskrit puruṣa, पुरुष "man, cosmic man", in Sutra literature also called puṃs "man") is the "Self" which pervades the universe.

Pamir Mountains….K. P. Jayswal identifies Mt Meru of the Puranas with the Hindukush ranges and locates the Uttakuru in the Pamirs itself

Pamirs and Uighur Khocho….the Buddhist Yugur of Gansu, by contrast, have consistently been called by themselves and others the "Yellow Uyghur" (Säriq Uyghur)

Pliny the Elder….

Proto-Indo-Iranian Religion….the religion of the Indo-Iranian peoples prior to the earliest Vedic (Indo-Aryan) and Zoroastrian (Iranic) scriptures.


RIGPA….A Dzogchen Master STARTS with "direct introduction" with everyone. If they don't "get it" then one starts to use all the infinite methods and means to help bring about the experience of Rigpa.

Rabatak Inscription & the Bactrian Language…The Rabatak inscription is an inscription written on a rock in the Bactrian language and the Greek script, which was found in 1993 at the site of Rabatak, near Surkh Kotal in Afghanistan. The inscription relates to the rule of the Kushan emperor Kanishka, and gives remarkable clues on the genealogy of the Kushan dynasty.

Radiant Matter & Radiant Light…Plasma (from Greek πλάσμα, "anything formed") is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and gas). It comprises the major component of the Sun.

Rawak Stupa & Khotan…a Buddhist stupa located on the southern rim of the Taklamakan Desert in China, along the famous trade route known as the Silk Road in the first millennium Kingdom of Khotan.

Rigden Kings of Shambhala Kalachakra…The Tibetan word rigden means “possessor of the family.” Usually the term refers to the historical-legendary kings of Shambhala.

Rigveda, The Vedas…The Rigveda (Sanskrit: ऋग्वेद ṛgveda, a compound of ṛc "praise, verse"and veda "knowledge") is an ancient Indian sacred collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns….contains several mythological and poetical accounts of the origin of the world, hymns praising the gods, and ancient prayers for life, prosperity, etc.[…. one of the oldest extant texts in any Indo-European language….composed in the north-western region of the Indian subcontinent, roughly between 1700–1100 BC

Rimé Movement & Non-Sectarianism…Rimé is a Tibetan word which means "no sides", "non-partisan" or "non-sectarian". In a religious context, the word ri-mé is usually used to refer to the "Eclectic Movement" between the Buddhist Nyingma, Sakya, and Kagyu traditions, along with the non-Buddhist Bön religion, wherein practitioners "follow multiple lineages of practice."

Rishis & Rishikas Of Kalachakra …A Rishi (or rishika, when referring to female rishis) is a sage of insight, one who practices self-cultivation as a Yogini or Yogi and attains asamprajñata Samadhi.

Rishis of Kashmiri Sufism & the Kalachakra…The Rishi order of Kashmir is a Sufi tradition associated with religious harmony. Many of the saints held dear by Kashmiris to this day were Sufi Rishis.

Royal Tombs of Ur (2500 BC)….The city dates from the Ubaid period circa 3800 BC, and is recorded in written history as a City State from the 26th century BC, its first recorded king being Mesh-Ane-pada.

Russian Shambhala Research…The spread of the Shambhala myth and the Kalachakra Tantra in the West has a history of its own….commences at the beginning of the twentieth century in Russia with the religious political activity of an ethnic Buriat by the name of Agvan Dorjiev.


Rigden King Suchandra….

Rigden Manjushrí Kírti….

Roman Empire….


Shivini: Solar Deity of Utartu (9th Century BC)

Solar Kingdoms & The Great Khorasan Road

SACRED SITES AND POWER SPOTS……Worldwide attention is being drawn to power spots (spiritual spots), where one can obtain energy from the earth and nature

SHAM and BHALA: Word Origins…CANDLE….(Persian: šamʿ); the Arabic word (Ar. also šamaʿ) literally means “beeswax." SOTUNG NANGU & The Hopi Gods…The Babylonian sky god was also named Anu. One Sumerian cylinder seal from around 2250 B.C. shows the pantheon of primary deities wearing peaked hats. The Hopi sky god Sotuknang, closely associated with the earth god Masau’u, also wears a pointed headdress.

Sacred Feminine in Shambhala…a sacred feminine archetype can occupy a very central place in prayer and worship.

Sacred Fire…fire personified in Indo-European religion….Atar in Zoroastrianism…..Agni in Vedic religion and Hinduism

Sacred Geometry: Pythagoras & Kalachakra….Pythagoras had undertaken extensive travels, and had visited not only Egypt, but Arabia, Phoenicia, Judaea, Babylon, and even India, for the purpose of collecting all available knowledge, and especially to learn information concerning the secret or mystic cults of the gods

Sacred Mountains & Shambhala….Many religions have some sacred mountains - that either are holy (like Mount Olympus in Greek mythology) or are related to famous events (Mount Sinai in Judaism). In some cases, the sacred mountain is purely mythical, like the Hara Berezaiti in Zoroastrianism.

Sangwa Dupa: The Guhyasamaja …the Guhyasamāja Tantra was taught for the first time by the Buddha in the form of Vajradhara to Indrabhuti the King of Oddiyana, also called King Dza.

Secular vs Sectarian…. Secular: not subject to or bound by religious rule; not belonging to or living in a monastic or other order…….when people believe one sect is better than the other, or that one sect is more right than the other, sectarianism may take over

Sexual Cosmology & Shambhala….the placing of the feminine in the universe in relationship to all other entities.

Shahnameh of Ferdowsi….. the Shahnameh tells mainly the mythical and to some extent the historical past of the Persian empire from the creation of the world until the Islamic conquest of Persia in the 7th century.

Shamanism in Central Asia….Shamans perform a variety of functions depending upon their respective cultures; healing, leading a sacrifice,preserving the tradition by storytelling and songs, divination, and acting as a psychopomp (literal meaning, "guide of souls").

Shamash, Sams ('Sun"), Shamis en Balkh …..Shamash (Akkadian Šamaš "Sun"), was a native Mesopotamian deity and the sun god in the Akkadian, Assyrian and Babylonian pantheons. Shamash was the god of justice in Babylonia and Assyria, corresponding to Sumerian Utu. Akkadian šamaš is cognate to Syriac šemša or šimšu Hebrew שֶׁמֶשׁ šemeš and Arabic شمس šams.



Sacral Kingship….

Sacred Dance & Magical Movement….

Sacred Fire…. in the mid-5th century BCE the Zoroastrians worshipped to the open sky, ascending mounds to light their fires.

Sanskrit Origins ….

Secular vs Sectarian….

Sgra (Sound), Bija, & Melody….

Shamanism in Central Asia….the Buddhist schools of Tibet attempted to suppress Indigenous Tibetan Religion, was by accusing Bon practitioners of being ‘intellectually uncivilized’ – of being mere primitive shamans.

Shambhala & Fire Pujas….

Shambhala & The White Turban….

Shambhala Training and The Kalachakra….

Shambhala Vision of Chogyam Trungpa…. Shambhala is the Central Asian kingdom that-developed in the countries of the Middle East, Russia, China, and Tibet altogether. The basic idea of Shambhala vision is that a sane society developed out of that culture, and we are trying to emulate that vision. That particular system broke down into the Taoist tradition and Bon tradition of Tibet, the Islamic tradition of the Middle East, and whatever tradition Russia might have. It has broken into various factions."

Shambhala as Human Historical Achievement….

Shambhala in the Mahabharata….The Buddhist myth of Shambhala is an adaptation of the earlier Hindu myth of Kalki of Sambhala found in the Mahabharata and the Puranas.

Shambhala, Bactria, Sumeria,'Sun Worship'…. : 5000 BC

Shambhala: Architecture, Clothing, Diet, Medicine….The men of Shambhala wear caps, and white or red cotton clothes. Women wear white or blue garments pleated and patterned with beautiful designs.

Shambhala: Eastward Migration…. (725 - 875 AD)

Shambhala: Tribes, Clans and Castes…. Skardu Baltistan….Tibetan speaking Muslim people in Pakistan. The Baltistan region, centered around Skardu

Sufism Origins….

Syncretism in Central Asian Traditions…. In Bhutan, the spiritual life of the Layaps and Lunaps is a fascinating demonstration of what anthropologists call religious synchronism.

Sambhala & Sambalpur, Orissa

Shamis en Balkh (Bactra, 67E..36N)…..شامس EN بلخ…….Balkh was a nexus point, a world navel, in which the marvelous happened, and from which the marvelous became what we know as Sufism, Zoroastrianism and Tibetan Buddhism. They were all cooked in the oven of Balkh.

Shamis en Balkh ... The Photographs …“All roads lead to Balkh,” uttered Gurdjieff, referring to the Sufic origin of all systems. Yesai Narai writes, “Balkh is the town often associated with Padmasambhava, and Rabia and Rumi as well.

Shamis en Balkh Ruins …There is also a tradition that Dzogchen, and Padmasambhava, come from a place called Oddiyana in Shamballa. Texts from the archeological site in Dunhuang identify Oddiyana as Shamis en Balkh in modern day Balkh, Afghanistan where many ruins, Buddhist stupas and monasteries exist.

Shamis en Balkh from Google Earth ….Balkh is one of the oldest cities in the world and is considered to be the first city to which the Indo-Iranian tribes moved from the North of Amu Darya, between 2000 - 1500 BC. The Arabs called it Umm Al-Belaad or Mother of Cities due to its antiquity.

Shamis en Balkh...The Ancient City …Balkh was referred to as the “Mother of Cities” and the “Elevated Candle” (Sham-i-Bala) and it was in Balkh that the great Prophet Zoroaster was born.

Shamis-en-balkh and Genghis Khan (1220 AD)…In 1220 Genghis Khan sacked Balkh, butchered its inhabitants and levelled all the buildings capable of defense

Shamis-en-balkh and Historical Shambhala …a number of Buddhist religious centres had flourished in Khorasan the most important was the Nawbahar (New Temple) near the town of Balkh , which evidently served as a pilgrimage centre for political leaders who came from far and wide to pay homage to it.

Shams-i-Balkh..... Shambhala Moon Temple …. the Shambhala king lives in a palace made from every conceivable gem and diamond. The architecture is based upon the laws of the heavens. There is a sun temple and a moon temple, a replica of the zodiac and the astral orbits.

Shams-i-Balkh..... Shambhala Sun Temple …. In the history of Afghanistan we have evidence that sun worship and sun-god statues were prevalent until the Kushan period…. the real name of Khurshed Khana is home of the sun.

Shangdi & The Book Of Rites …Shangdi (Chinese: 上帝, p Shàngdì, w Shang-ti), also written simply as Di (帝), is a supreme sky deity in China's traditional religion.

Shangshung, Ling & Tagzig Olmo Lung Ring ….Zhang Zhung, Shang Shung, or Tibetan Pinyin Xang Xung, was an ancient culture and kingdom of western and northwestern Tibet, which pre-dates the culture of Tibetan Buddhism in Tibet. Zhang Zhung culture is associated with the Bon religion

Shardza Tashi Gyaltsen (1859-1934)…Shardza Tashi Gyaltsen (Tibetan: ཤར་རྫ་བཀྲ་ཤིས་རྒྱལ་མཚན, Wylie: shar rdza bkra shis rgyal mtshan) was a great Dzogchen master of the Tibetan Bon tradition who not only took Bon disciples but gathered disciples from all traditions of Tibetan Buddhism. According to tradition, he famously realized the rainbow body.

Shen & Yeshen ….The supreme divine principle of Bon is referred to as Yeshen.

Sherab Chamma ….also called in Tibetan language "Thugje Chamma", (the loving mother of compassion) is considered in the Bon tradition to be the Gyalyum (rgyal yum), the mother of all buddhas. She embodies the perfection of wisdom. In the Buddhist tradition of India Chamma is called Prajnaparamita or Tara, the "saviouress."

Shi Wai Tao Yuan: The Peach Blossom Land ….In the East, "Shangri-la" means an ideal living place, like the Garden of Eden or heaven in western countries. Shangri-la (Shi Wai Tao Yuan) was bdescribed in the poetic imagery depicted in Tao Hua Yuan Ji by the famous poet Tao Yuanming in the Jin Dynasty.

Shinto: Shin Tao , Way of the Gods, Kami, Drala….The word Shinto ("Way of the Gods") was adopted from the written Chinese (神道, pinyin: shén dào),combining two kanji: "shin" (神?), meaning "spirit" or kami; and "tō" (道?), meaning a philosophical path or study (from the Chinese word dào)

Shiva, Shiwa, Shenlha & Mt Kailash Deities….The 360 Werma deities who dwell on Mt Kailash in western Tibet."

Shiwa Okar, Shenlha Okar and Akar Werma….Shenlha Okar, (alt. Shenla Odker, Shenla Odkar, Shenla Wökar, Wylie: gShen lHa 'od dkar) or Shiwa Okar (Wylie: zhi ba 'od dkar)is the most important deity in the Yangdrung Bon tradition of Tibet.He is counted among the "Four Transcendent Lords" along with Satrig Ersang, Sangpo Bumtri, and Tonpa Shenrab Miwoche.

Shuddhodana : Father of the Buddha ….King Suddhodana (Sanskrit: Śuddhodana; Japanese: 浄飯王 Jōbon-ō) was the father of Gautama Buddha. He was a leader of the Shakya people, who lived in Kapilvastu and was a righteous king.

Silver Palace in the Garuda Valley ... …..Kyunglung (Tibetan: ཁྱུང་ལུང་དངུལ་མཁར།, ZYPY: Kyunglung Ngükar), the "Silver Palace of Garuda Valley", southwest of Mount Kailash (Gang Ti-se), which is identified with palaces found in the upper Sutlej Valley was the capital city of the ancient kingdom of Zhang Zhung…..

Silver/Gold Sculpture ...Bactria , ca. 2000 BCE…Some of the Greco-Bactrian coins, and those of their successors the Indo-Greeks, are considered the finest examples of Greek numismatic art with "a nice blend of realism and idealization", including the largest coins to be minted in the Hellenistic world:

Six Lamps: Lhündrub Tögal in Bon Dzogchen….Lhündrub Tögal (Tibetan: ལྷུན་གྲུབ་ཐོད་རྒལ།, Wylie: lhun grub thod rgal) is a Dzogchen term and practice which holds the semantic field "leaping over", "direct crossing" and "direct approach"…..Tögal is the practice of "the six lamps" which constitute the preliminaries and the main practice.

Skandhas …In Bon, the five elemental processes of earth, water, fire, air and space are the essential elements of all existent phenomena or skandhas (aggregates) the most subtle enumeration of which are known as the five pure lights..

Sogdians (4-10th c.) & Tibet Migration ….The Sogdian states, although never politically united, were centered around the main city of Samarkand. Sogdiana lay north of Bactria, east of Khwarezm, and southeast of Kangju between the Oxus (Amu Darya) and the Jaxartes (Syr Darya), embracing the fertile valley of the Zeravshan (ancient Polytimetus).

Sol Invictus, Mithras, The Great Eastern Sun …Sol Invictus ("Unconquered Sun") was the official sun god of the later Roman Empire…the date of 25 December for Christmas was selected in order to correspond with the Roman festival of Dies Natalis Solis Invicti, or "Birthday of the Unconquered Sun"

Strirajya: The Land of Women (330 BC)…According to Rajatarangini of Kalhana, king Lalitaditya Muktapida of Kashmir leads a war expedition against the tribes of north (i.e. north of Kashmir) and in sequence, encounters the Kambojas, Tusharas, Bhauttas, Daradas, Valukambudhis, Uttarakurus, Strirajya (mythical or otherwise) and Pragjyotisha with whom he fights one after the other.

Suhrawardi Sufism and Platonic Orientalism…The Suhrawardiyya (Arabic: سهروردية‎) is a Sufi order founded by the Sufi Diya al-din Abu 'n-Najib as-Suhrawardi (1097 – 1168 CE)……

Sumerian Tablets & The Kaballah….The earliest record of the Sumerian creation and flood is found on a single fragmentary tablet excavated in Nippur, sometimes called the Eridu Genesis. It is written in the Sumerian language and dated to around 1600 BC during the first Babylonian dynasty.

Sumerian Wisdom Literature (1750 BC)…Instructions of Shuruppak (or, Instructions of Šuruppak son of Ubara-tutu) is a significant piece of Sumerian wisdom literature.

Sumeru: Geography ……Mount Meru or Mount Sumeru (Skt. sumeruparvata; Tib. རི་རབ་, Wyl. ri rab) is a mountain square in shape with four sides, larger at the top than at the bottom….we are living on the southern continent of Jambudvipa and the southern side of Mount Meru is blue, this explains why the seas around and the sky above us are blue. The shine of the blue lapis-lazuli reflects on the marine waters in front. Upon hitting the surface it reflects and appears in the space above. So rather than there being something blue above us, the space appears blue because of the reflection of the lapis-lazuli of Mount Meru's southern side.

Surkh Kotal & The Kushan Empire….Surkh Kotal (Persian: سرخ‌کوتل‎), also called Chashma-i Shir or Sar-i Chashma, is an ancient archaeological site located in the southern part of the region of Bactria….the most famous artifacts of this site are the Surkh Kotal inscriptions, the statue of King Kanishka and the fire altar.


TIGER Dignity… there is much fascination with tigers in Tibet, a symbol of divine power, martial prowess and magical ability.

Taht-I-Suleiman… the mountain is "the most complete example of a sacred mountain anywhere in Central Asia, worshipped over several millennia"

Taoism & Shambhala… at the end of his life the Chinese Taoist teacher Lao-Tzu, returned to Shambhala, although he called it Tebu Land. . . .

Terma Traditions: Bon, Dzogchen, Tantra… Wylie: gter ma; "hidden treasure") are key Tibetan Buddhist and Bön teachings

Kalachakra Prophets…"One passage of the Kālachakra (Śri Kālachakra I. 161) reads, "The Chakravartin shall come out at the end of the age, from the city the gods fashioned on Mount Kailasa. He shall smite the barbarians in battle with his own four-division army, on the entire surface of the earth."

Mahabharata…The Kurukshetra War was, according to the Indian epic poem Mahābhārata, a conflict that arose from a dynastic succession struggle between two groups of cousins of an Indo-Aryan kingdom called Kuru, the Kauravas and Pandavas, for the throne of Hastinapura. It involved a number of ancient kingdoms...believed to date variously from 6000 BCE to 500 BCE

MES…Ancient Blueprints to Civilization…In Sumerian mythology, a me (Sumerian, conventionally pronounced [mɛ]) or ñe [ŋɛ] or parşu (Akkadian, [parsˤu]) is one of the decrees of the gods foundational to those social institutions, religious practices, technologies, behaviors, mores, and human conditions that make civilization, as the Sumerians understood it, possible. They are fundamental to the Sumerian understanding of the relationship between humanity and the gods.

Scorpion Seal …A stylized scorpion is often used as a seal by tantric lamas. It has 3 eyes, 8 five-segmented legs, and a tail with nine joints. The mathematics gives 52, the number of weeks in a year. It is coloured blue, green and red to stand for 3 of the five traditional elements: space/ether, air, and fire.

Tiger,Lion,Garuda,Dragon Dignities…The four animals (with the snow lion replacing the yak) also recur frequently in the Gesar epic

Tillya Tepe & The Bactrian Treasure…a collection of about 20,000 gold ornaments that were found in six graves (five women and one man) with extremely rich jewelry, dated to around the 1st century BCE.

Trapussa and Bhallika…Tradition has it that Trapussa and Bhallika, two merchant brothers from Bactria visited the Buddha immediately after his enlightenment, became his first disciples….

Twenty-One Nails… Oral Transmission of Zhang Zhung Bon…precepts, principally the Twenty-one Nails and the Six Lamps, that form the canonical teachings of the Zhang Zhung Oral tradition



Umm-al-Belad & The Kayanian Dynasty….Umm-al-belad, The Mother of Cities......the city of Balkh, near modern Mazar-e Sharif, is known as "the mother of cities" (Umm al Bilad) .


Vajra Caste & Kalachakra….The purpose of the Vajra Caste was not force everyone to convert to Buddhism ….

Vedas….The Vedas are apauruṣeya ("not of human agency"). They are supposed to have been directly revealed, and thus are called śruti ("what is heard"), distinguishing them from other religious texts, which are called smṛti ("what is remembered").

Vegetarian Diet of Shambhala….One of the main principles of the Manichaeans was a vegetarian diet of mainly green and yellow foods. Supposedly, light was concentrated in these foods

Veneration & Offerings….Veneration (Latin veneratio, Greek δουλεία, douleia), is the act of honoring a God, saint, or a teacher who has been identified as having a high degree of sanctity or wisdom. Angels are shown similar veneration in many religions. Philologically, "to venerate" derives from the Latin verb, venerare, meaning to regard with reverence and respect

Vidyadhara Rigdens….The Rigdens other than Rigden Raudrachakrin are of the Asura family because of bestowing fear

Vimāna, Lung-gom, and the Flight of Rigden King….Vimana: From that meaning Pushpaka or Dandumonara; the flying palace of king Rāvana of Lanka…….a chariot of the gods, any mythical self-moving aerial car (sometimes serving as a seat or throne, sometimes self-moving and carrying its occupant through the air; other descriptions make the Vimana more like a house or palace, and one kind is said to be seven stories high).

Vishvamata: World Mother….


WERMA DEITIES…To the masters the Werma are important. The Werma whirl like snow-storms, those they escort are the practitioners, those they assist are the practitioners, those they protect are the practitioners. We proffer the well-prepared offerings and confess errors if we have mingled with evil!" (Drung, Deu and Bon....1995..... page 55)

Way of Nangshen… the Shen of the Visible World…..In Bon, Nangshen, comprises various rituals for purification to summon energy and enhance prosperity, to suppress and liberate negative forces, and to invoke and make offerings to powerful deities and pay ransoms to demonic spirits. This way is principally concerned with visible manifestations (snang ba) perceived as positive manifestations of the activities of the gods (lha) who come to the aid of humanity. Therefore, the emphasis is placed on invoking the gods (lha gsol ba) for their aid. This includes such classes of deities as the Thugs dkar, the sGra bla, the Wer ma, and so on.

White Turban Iconography… The Prophet Muhammad is believed to have worn a turban in white, the most holy colour.

World Heritage Sites in Central Asia…The UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) has designated 19 World Heritage Sites in six countries (also called "state parties") of Central and North Asia: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and the Asian part of Russia.


Yeshe Tsogyal …(757–817)…She became the consort of King Trisong Detsen before being offered to Guru Rinpoche as a mandala offering during an empowerment. She specialized in the practice of Vajrakilaya and experienced visions of the deity and gained accomplishment. In Nepal, she paid a ransom for Acharya Salé and took him as her spiritual consort. Through the power of her unfailing memory, she collected all the teachings given by Guru Rinpoche in Tibet and concealed them as terma. At the end of her life, it is said, she flew through the air and went directly to Zangdokpalri.

Yung Drung Bon…Yungdrung Bon was founded by the Buddha Tönpa Shenrab Miwoche. He discovered the methods of attaining enlightenment and is considered to be a figure analogous to Gautama Buddha. He was said to have lived 18,000 years ago in the land of Olmo Lung Ring, part of the land of Tagzig (see Tagzig Olmo Lung Ring), to the west of present day Tibet

Xuanzang…. (635 AD)

Yung Drung Bon….


Zhang Qian…. (2nd C. BC)

Zhutrul Yeshi & Mucho Demdrug

Zarathustra & Zoroastrianism…Zoroaster's death was said to have been in Balkh located in present-day Afghanistan during the Holy War between Turan and the Persian empire in 583 BC. Jamaspa, his son-in-law, then became Zoroaster's successor.

Zhang-zhung Kingdom… & Shambhala…Zhang Zhung, Shang Shung, or Tibetan Pinyin Xang Xung, was an ancient culture and kingdom of western and northwestern Tibet, which pre-dates the culture of Tibetan Buddhism in Tibet. Zhang Zhung culture is associated with the Bon religion

Ziggurats & Calahs of Central Asia…Ziggurats (/ˈzɪɡʊˌræt/, Akkadian ziqqurat, D-stem of zaqāru "to build on a raised area") were massive structures built in the ancient Mesopotamian valley and western Iranian plateau, having the form of a terraced step pyramid of successively receding stories or levels.

Ziji & Shenrab Miwo…."The work of Shenrap still exists in Tibet in the form of 400 volumes, but it has undergone heavy Buddhist editing." (Trungpa: 220)....The Tibetan texts "Ziji" (gZi brid) and "Zermig" (gZer mig)(Piercing Eye) Two biographies of Shenrab Miwo (Mibo).

Zurvanism… & Shambhala….In Zurvanism, Zurvan is the god of infinite time (and space) and is aka (“one", "alone”) deity of matter.




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