Friday, November 15, 2013

Okar Research: Table of Contents (A-L)


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Anahita & Vajradakini...Vajradakini is the designation of the dancing semi-wrathful form of Vajravarahi

Abisheka....The Japanese kanji used literally mean "pouring from the peak", which poetically describes the process of passing on the master's teachings to the student.

ALCHEMY..….The oldest Indian writings, the Vedas (Hindu sacred scriptures), contain the same hints of alchemy that are found in evidence from ancient China.

ASHE…….the powerful existence arising out of basic goodness.

Airyana Vaeja & Arya Varta… ….The concept, description and qualities of Shambala coincide with those for Arya Varta / Airyana Vaeja, the Aryan homeland.

Alexandria on the Caucasus.... In Classical times, the Hindu Kush were also designated as the "Caucasus" in parallel to their Western equivalent, the Caucasus Mountains between Europe and Asia

Amaterasu Omikami...Chogyam Trangpa visited Ise Grand Shrine in Japan, and told his followers about Shinto, the indigenous religion of Japan. He said Shinto thought is similar to Shambhala and he decided to incorporate a Shinto shrine at RMDC.

Anahita...Sacred Water...Anahita is a Water Goddess, a Fertility Goddess, and a Protector of Women. She is sometimes depicted as riding a tiger (like Durga!) ...

Ancient Arkaim (17th C. BC)…….early investigators described Arkaim as "Swastika City", "Mandala City", and "the ancient capital of early Aryan civilization"

Ancient China….In Jambudvipa there were six great countries where the true doctrine was propagated: India, Tibet, China, Khotan, Shambhala, and Kailash.

Ancient Historians….The early Greek historian Ctesias c. 400 BCE (followed by Diodorus Siculus) alleged that the legendary Assyrian king Ninus had defeated a Bactrian king named Oxyartes in ca. 2140 BC, or some 1000 years before the Trojan War.

Ancient Kashmir… the birth place of Garab Dorje not simply as 'Uddiyana' but as being close to Lake Kutra in the region of Dhanakosha; thus indicating present day North-eastern Kashmir

Ancient Margush (1600 BC)….Margush was one the five oldest centers of the world's civilization.

Ancient Scripts……. dakini script by Yeshe Tsogyal, which is not understandable to ordinary people.

Ancient Tibet…Around 1196 B.C., Zhutrul Yeshi, a great master from Tagzig established the Bon monastic system and propagated the practice of monastic discipline and philosophical study in the kingdoms of Zhang Zhung and Tibet

Bactra: Ancient Water System (2,000 BC)……The kareez are difficult, laborious and time consuming to build and maintain. However, without them normal life in the more arid regions of the Aryan lands and the later Persian empire, including Egypt, would have been untenable.

Asha, Rta & Natural Hierarchy…..In the Vedic religion, Ṛta (Sanskrit ऋतं ṛtaṃ "that which is properly joined; order, rule; truth") is the principle of natural order which regulates and coordinates the operation of the universe and everything within it.

Astrolatry…..There is a Tibetan proverb which says: "Even if you've got eyes to see other people, you need a mirror to see yourself!....For the ancients, the night sky was a cosmic mirror.

Avesta…..There are strong linguistic and cultural similarities between the texts of the Avesta and those of the Rigveda; the similarities are assumed to reflect the common beliefs of Proto-Indo-Iranian times, with the differences then assumed to reflect independent evolution that occurred after the split of the two cultures (c. 1500 BC).

Āditya Solar Dynasty (2200 BC)…..In the Rigveda, the Ādityas are the seven celestial deities, sons of Āditi, headed by Varuna, followed by Mitra (Vedic personification of Surya/Sun)..

'Sun Worship'….....only a relatively few cultures (Egyptian, Indo-European, and Meso-American) developed solar religions. All of these groups had in common a well-developed urban civilization with a strong ideology of sacred kingship.

96 Satraps of Shambhala…........ "satrap" originates ultimately (via Ancient Greek and Latin) from Old Persian xšaçapāvan ("protector of the province"), from xšaça ("realm" or "province") and pāvan ("protector").

ALCHEMY in Central Asia…Chinese alchemy was closely connected to Taoism and Indian alchemy with the Dharmic faiths

ANCIENT BACTRIA…..Bactria, also called Bactriana or Zariaspa, wealthy ancient country surrounded by the mountains of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (ancient Oxus River)....

AYBAK & The Hazār Som Valley…... important archeological sites on the Road to Balk

Abaris the Skywalker, The Avars…..a legendary sage, healer, and priest of Apollo known to the Ancient Greeks. He was supposed to have learned his skills in his homeland of Hyperborea, near the Caucasus

Abrahamic Semitic Religions….. in chronological order of founding are Judaism, Christianity, and Islam

Achaemenid Persians & Achaean Greeks…..Archeological evidence suggests that the Achaeans migrated from "southern Asia Minor to Greece, probably settling first in lower Thessaly" probably prior to 2000 BC.

Aikhanoum: Greco-Bactrian City (4th C. BC)… the historical Alexandria on the Oxus, also possibly later named اروکرتیه or Eucratidia), was founded in the 4th century BC, following the conquests of Alexander the Great and was one of the primary cities of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom.

Akar Werma, Akar thegpa, Shiwa Okar…… Gesar was in the form of a young boy dressed in white…Trungpa Rinpoche identified the boy as Akar Werma.

Akar Werma, Akar thegpa, Shiwa Okar……

Akbar the Great (Mughal: 1542 –1605 AD)……The stories of the search for Shambhala began in the mid 1500s at the court of the Indian Mogul Emperor Akbar the Great.

Alexander Csoma & Historical Shambhala……He conjectured that this S'ambhala, very probably, was the capital of the Bactrian Empire of the Eastern Greeks who had embraced Buddhism. It is also conjectured that the modern city of Balkh must have been the site of their latest capital.


Alexander The Great (Greece: 356-323 BC)… In 329, the Macedonian conqueror Alexander the Great arrived in Bactria, after a heroic crossing of the Hindu Kush.

Alexandra David-Neel & Historical Shambhala…associated Shambhala with Balkh in present day Afghanistan, also offering the Persian Sham-i-Bala, "elevated candle" as an etymology of its name

Anahita...Sacred Water…the Old Persian form of the name of an Iranian goddess and appears in complete and earlier form as Aredvi Sura Anahita (Arədvī Sūrā Anāhitā); the Avestan language name of an Indo-Iranian cosmological figure venerated as the divinity of 'the Waters' (Aban) introduced apparently in the 4th century BCE

Anau Seal…the Bactria-Margiana complex had also developed writing, and thus may indeed be considered a literate civilization. It bears five markings strikingly similar to Chinese "small seal" characters… the Anau seal is dated by context to 2,300 BCE.

Ancient Bactria Map…Bactria (from Βακτριανή, the Hellenized version of Old Persian Bāxtriš; Bactrian: Baktra; Persian/Pashto: باختر Bākhtar; Tajik: Бохтар; Chinese: 大夏 Dàxià; Sanskrit बाह्लीक Bahilka) is the ancient name of a historical region located south of the Amu Darya and west of Gandhara.

Ancient Bactria: Numismatic History…Lost World of the Golden King: In Search of Ancient Afghanistan…a narrative history of the obscure realm of the Bactrian Greeks who and their successful rebellion against the Seleucid rulers in about 260 BC

Ancient Cities & Kingdoms of Shambhala……Known as the Land of a Thousand Cities, the great cities each had a Calah (Castle, Kala) and a King.

Ancient Paropamisadae… the ancient Greek name for a region of the Hindu-Kush (Caucasus Indicus) in eastern Afghanistan, centered on the cities of Kabul and Kapisa (modern Bagram).

Ancient Seals, Symbols & Coinage of Shambhala… The Coins of the Greek and Scythic Kings of Bactria and India in the British Museum

Apsaras, 64 Yoginis & Shambhala …a female spirit of the clouds and waters in Hindu and Buddhist mythology.

Arab Conquest of Shambhala (642-870 AD)…870 A.D. marks the first time that the KINGDOM OF SHAMBHALA actually came under Moslem domination.

Aratta: The Mythical Seven Gated City….Aratta is the Sumerian homeland to the East…. a fabulously wealthy place full of gold, silver, lapis lazuli and other precious materials, as well as the artisans to craft them…...Afghanistan was the source of lapis for the ancient Egyptian and Mesopotamian civilizations, as well as the later Greeks and Romans.

Archaeology of the Balkh Region….The Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex (or BMAC, also known as the Oxus civilization) is the modern archaeological designation for a Bronze Age civilisation of Central Asia, dated to ca. 2300–1700 BCE

Asaṅga, Vasubandhu & Shambhala…Asaṅga was born as the son of a Kṣatriya father and Brahmin mother in Puruṣapura (present day Peshawar in Pakistan), which at that time was part of the ancient kingdom of Gandhāra. Current scholarship places him in the fourth century CE.

Astrolatry… astro-theology is used in the context of 18th to 19th century scholarship aiming at the discovery of the original religion

Asura - Deva Conflict…According to the Bhagavata-Purana, as soon as the Amrita was produced, the devas took possession of it, and broke their promise to the asuras to give them half. As a consequence, the asuras then tried to steal it from the devas. A struggle ensued which the asuras lost and the devas consumed the nectar of immortality all by themselves.

Avesta… the primary collection of sacred texts of Zoroastrianism, and is composed in the Avestan language. The Avesta is seen as the Iranian counterpart to the Indo-Aryan Vedas… Younger Avestan is thought to date to the Achaemenid era (559–330 BC)


Bactra-Zariaspa… Golden Horse



BMAC Culture…. (2300 BC)….The reasons that the cities of the Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex were suddenly abandoned are not known.

Bactria...The Photographs….

Bactria: Palace of the King….

Bala Hissar….

Bhojakas & Śākadvīpīyas….

Bon Tradition….

Bactria, Tagzig, Khorasan, Paktra, Zariaspa, Vahil…Greater Khorasan, a historic region which lies mainly in modern day Afghanistan, as well as in parts of Iran and Turkmenistan. It was previously known as Parthia; later, during the Sassanid era, it was changed to Khorasan.

Bactra (Balkh) in Bactria Map…The ancient city of Balkh was under the Greeks renamed Bactra, giving its name to Bactria. It was mostly known as the centre and capital of Bactria or Tokharistan. Balkh is now for the most part a mass of ruins, situated some 12 km from the right bank of the seasonally flowing Balkh River, at an elevation of about 365 m (1,200 ft). Outside the town was a large Buddhist monastery, later known as Naubahar

Bactria: The Lalitavistara Sutra…The Lalitavistara Sutra (Sanskrit; traditional Chinese: 普曜經; pinyin: Pǔyào Jīng) is a Buddhist sutra of the Mahayana tradition that describes the life story of Gautama Buddha.

Bactrian Kshatriya Kings of Shambhala…The warrior and kingly class in the ancient class system of India was the Kshatriyas, second in the social hierarchy only behind the Brahmins. They shouldered the great burden of protecting and ruling.

Bactrian Kushan Kings (30 - 375 AD)..The Kushan Empire (Sanskrit: कुषाण राजवंश, Kuṣāṇ Rājavaṃśa; BHS: Guṣāṇa-vaṃśa; Parthian: Kušanxšaθr) was an empire in South Asia originally formed in the early 1st century CE under Kujula Kadphises in the territories of ancient Bactria around the Oxus River (Amu Darya)

Badakhshan and the Wakhan Corridor… the Corridor was historically used as a trading route between Badakhshan and Yarkand. It appears that Marco Polo came this way.The Portuguese Jesuit priest Bento de Goes crossed from the Wakhan to China between 1602 and 1606. In May 1906 Sir Aurel Stein explored the Wakhan,

Balkh & Ancient Egypt (3150 BC)…Afghanistan was the source of lapis for the ancient Egyptian and Mesopotamian civilizations, as well as the later Greeks and Romans.

Balkh & Sar-i Sang…Sar-i Sang is a settlement in the Kuran Wa Munjan District of Badakhshan Province, Afghanistan, famous for its ancient lapis lazuli mines producing the world's finest lapis

Balkh Region in the Bronze Age…The Oxus civilization was a Bronze Age Central Asian culture dated to ca. 2300–1700 BC and centered on the upper Amu Darya (Oxus).

Banpo & The Cosmic City (4,800 BCE)…Banpo (Chinese: 半坡; pinyin: Bànpō) is an archaeological site discovered in 1953 and located in the Yellow River Valley just east of Xi'an, China. It contains the remains of several well organized Neolithic settlements dating from 5600 - 6700

Bards & Poetic Oral History…There is now considerable evidence to suggest that Celtic and European cultures share a common origin with cultures which emerged in India thousands of years ago, and which gave birth to the ‘Dharmic religions’ of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism.

Bas-Relief Sculpture & Narrative History…Ancient Persian sculptures and bas-reliefs, rock inscriptions, &c., &c., belonging to the kings of the Achaemenian and Sassanian Kingdoms

Basic Goodness...In Bon Dzogchen it is stated that all of reality is pervaded by a transcendent principle called "All Good". It has a male aspect called Kuntu Sangpo and a female aspect, Kungtu Sangmo, and is a "universal reality of dynamic potentiality"

Baudhayana Srauta Sutra…Baudhāyana, (fl. c. 800 BCE) was the author of the Baudhayana sūtras, which cover dharma, daily ritual, Vedic sacrifices, etc. He belongs to the Yajurveda school, and is older than the other sūtra author Āpastambha. He was the author of the earliest Sulba Sūtra—appendices to the Vedas giving rules for the construction of altars—called the Baudhāyana Śulbasûtra. These are notable from the point of view of mathematics, for containing several important mathematical results, including giving a value of pi to some degree of precision.

Bhojakas & Śākadvīpīyas…Śākadvīpīya Brahmans or Bhojaka Brahmans, is a class of Hindu priests and Ayurveda teachers (acharyas) and practitioners, with significant concentrations of their populations occurring in Western and Northern India.

Bhutan: Bon-Buddhist Synchronism…Before the introduction of Buddhism in Bhutan, Bön religion was prevalent in Bhutan. Some scholars hold that Bön doctrine became so strongly reinvigorated in Bhutan by Buddhism that by the eleventh century it reasserted itself as an independent school. Bön continues to be practiced in modern Bhutan.

Blue Sky Mind, Blue Pancake Sky…The Blue Pancake. A teaching on maha ati by Chögyam Trungpa Rinpoche. Maha ati teachings talk of enormous space.

Bodhidharma (5th/6th century CE)….Broughton notes that Bodhidharma was a Persian from Central Asia…investigates the relationships between Mithraism, Persian culture, Zen and Mahayana Buddhism

Bon Tradition…Olmo Lung-ring was also known as Shambhala in Sanskrit and it continues to be known by this name among Tibetan Buddhists even today. Moreover, it is said that in ancient times it encompassed fully one-third of the known world a statement which could apply to the historical Persian empire.

Buddhism Before Sakyamuni…The Seven Buddhas before Shakyamuni Buddha

Byung rTsis & the Eight Parkha…The eight Parkha trigrams of the Chinese I Ching are also used in Byung-rtsis…four seasons and four cardinals….The name "Parkha" comes from the Chinese and means number eight.



Ceremonial Dance….

Chitral & Oḍḍiyāna…. Uddiyana ... present day North-eastern Kashmir (now Pakistan) - a region right in the middle between Chitral, Gilgit and Swat.


Circumambulation Rituals….Tibetan Buddhist yoga regards clockwise rotation to be favorable, whereas counter-clockwise rotation is preferred in Bon.

Henry Corbin & Realized Eschatology

CHOD: Cutting Through…An Advanced Type of Shamanism

Historical Calendar of Central Asia

Canyon de Chelly & Kokyangwuti…Spider Woman. She was first to weave her web of the universe and taught Din'eh (Navajo) to create beauty in their own life and spread the "Beauty Way" teaching of balance within the mind, body, & soul.

Cave Art & Petroglyphs….The Pamirs, with more than 50 sites, is the richest area for rock drawings in Tajikistan.

Celtic Druids & Persian Magi… in the ancient world the Druids, the "magi of the North"......a good number of early Celtic beliefs seem to have similarities with early Indian Vedic culture and beliefs. This is most likely because of their common Indo-European heritage

Central Asia: Enlightened Monarchy…Voltaire, the prominent Enlightenment philosopher who felt enlightened monarchy was the only real way for society to advance, and by Mozart's The Magic Flute, whose libretto was written by Emanuel Schikaneder, which can be regarded as an allegory advocating enlightened absolutism.

Ceremonies & Ancient Rituals…..

Chakravartin & Universal Monarch…The cakravartin in Buddhism came to be considered the secular counterpart of a Buddha.

Chan Buddhism, Zen & Shambhala…the links between ancient Iran and the Zen Buddhist culture of Asia – Zen Buddhism and Persian Culture: An investigation on the Simurgh (Persian Phoenix) culture and Zen Buddhism"

Chandragupta (Maurya: 340-298 BC)…Chandragupta succeeded in conquering and subjugating almost all of the Indian subcontinent by the end of his reign. His empire extended from Bengal and Assam in the east, to Afghanistan and Balochistan, eastern and south-east Iran in the west, to Kashmir in the north, and to the Deccan Plateau in the south.

Chang Shambhala & Xembhala ……Chang Shambhala, northern Shambhala, the name Hindus use to distinguish it from an Indian town of the same name.

Cherchen Man & Uighur Tarim Tocharians…. He stood about six feet tall, had light hair and fair skin, and he lived about 3,000 years ago in what is today the Xinjiang region of western China. He sports facial tattoos. And the world’s oldest surviving pair of pants...He’s among a group of mummies found in the Tarim Basin dating from between about 1900 B.C. and 200 A.D.

Cintamani..Wish Fulfilling Gem…Cintāmaṇi (Sanskrit; Devanagari: चिन्तामणि) also spelled as Chintamani (or the Chintamani Stone) is a wish-fulfilling jewel within both Hindu and Buddhist traditions, equivalent to the philosopher's stone (Paras Pathar) in Western alchemy

Circumambulation ….Circumambulation of temples or deity images is an integral part of Hindu, Bon and Buddhist devotional practice (known in Sanskrit as pradakśiṇā)

Confucius & Shambhala…Confucius (551–479 BC) was a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history

Cosmic Mirror & Cosmic Egg….The original state likened to a primordial or cosmic mirror. ... In the realm of the cosmic mirror, your mind extends its vision completely

Cosmic Ocean…a mythological motif found in the Creation myth of many cultures and civilizations. The cosmic ocean is often the entire universe in a dim and nonspecific past, and the first source of gods or the world. The cosmic ocean is also often still surrounding the present world.

Crazy Wisdom ... Yeshe Chölwa: Mahasiddha….Crazy wisdom or yeshe chölwa (Tibetan: ཡེ་ཤེས་འཆོལ་བ, Wylie: ye shes 'chol ba, literally: "wisdom gone wild") refers to unconventional, outrageous, or unexpected behavior, being either a manifestation of buddha nature and spiritual teaching (enlightened activity, Wylie: phrin'las)on the part of the guru

Creative Vision and Inner Reality

Cuneiform, Writing, Sumeria...3500 BC….Emerging in Sumer in the late 4th millennium BC (the Uruk IV period), cuneiform writing began as a system of pictographs.

Cyrus The Great (580-529 BC)…Cyrus the Great created the largest empire the world had yet seen. His regal titles in full were The Great King, King of Persia, King of Anshan, King of Media, King of Babylon, King of Sumer and Akkad, and King of the Four Corners of the World.



Dzogchen Traditions….

DAKINIS: Sky Dancers…(Sanskrit: डाकिनी ḍākinī, Pali ḍāginī, Mongolian: дагина), derived from a figure of medieval Hindu legend (Bhagavata Purana, Brahma Purana, Markandeya Purana, Kathasaritsagara), a female imp in the train of Kali who feeds on human flesh (her masculine counterpart being called ḍāka ). They are comparable to malevolent or vengeful female spirits, deities, imps or fairies in other cultures, such as the Persian peri.

Dadar, mDa' dar, Dadhar, Arrow….The Dadar (Tibetan; Wylie: mda' dar), or arrow often though not always dressed with rainbow ribbon is a teaching tool, ritual instrument symbol for Nyingmapa and Bonpo Dzogchenpa and is a particular attribute for Mandarava and Saraha.

Dankanoshka Lake and Padmakara…the lake called "Ocean of Milk" in South West Odiyana, which is also known as Lake Danakosha located on the Afganistan-Pakistan frontier.

Dark Retreat & Ratriyoga Practice…Dark retreat (Wylie: mun mtshams) refers to advanced practices in the Taoism, Dzogchen lineages of the Nyingmapa, Bönpo, other schools of Tibetan Buddhism. A dark retreat is a solo retreat in a space that is completely absent of light. Because there is no optical stimulation, one can experience "prisoner's cinema", commonly known as 'the lights'.

Dashly Archaeological Sites (c. 2500-1700 BCE)…DAŠLĪ (Dashly), oasis situated south of the Āmū Daryā (q.v.), on the desert plain of northern Afghanistan, ancient Bactria….forty-one archeological sites, representing occupations from the Bronze Age to the Kushan period, have been found distributed over an area 100 km….the two principal Bronze Age sites are Dashly 1 and Dashly 3….Dashly 1 consists of the remains of a square citadel overlooking a “lower town.”

Denkart…Dēnkart, ( Pahlavi: “Acts of the Religion”) also spelled Dinkard, 9th-century encyclopaedia of the Zoroastrian religious tradition.

Divine Triad of Syrian Gods…. In its pantheon, external gods mingled with native deities. It was in this context that the triad of Ba'alshamin, Aglibol, and Malakbel developed during the first half of the first century AD.

Dorje Lingpa (1346- 1405)….Dorje Lingpa considered himself an incarnation of Vairocana, the eighth century Tibetan adept who is considered to have concealed both Buddhist and Bon treasures and figures prominently in the Dzogchen lineage of both traditions.

Dorje Lingpa: Gold Needle Terma: Serthur….Kubum was the place where Dorje Lingpa spent some time when he was in Bhutan…one of the principal reasons for visiting Paro was to reveal some hidden manuscripts in one of the caves of Tagtshang. The “Gold Needle” is the main work of the manuscript collection. It contains a remarkably original exposition of the Dzogchen doctrine, which he claims to be in accordance with the Bon tradition.

Dream Yoga... MILAM….. (T:rmi-lam or nyilam; S:svapnadarśana) — the Yoga of the Dream State are a suite of advanced tantric sadhana of the entwined Mantrayana lineages of Dzogchen (Nyingmapa, Ngagpa, Mahasiddha, Kagyu and Bönpo). Dream Yoga are tantric processes and techniques within the trance Bardos of Dream and Sleep (Tibetan: mi-lam bardo) and are advanced practices similar to Yoga Nidra.

Dream/Reality: Sufism,Taoism, Dzogchen….Sufism is about awakening to reality NOW vs. the hereafter. The focus is on the experience through ‘tasting’ the Divine reality.

Druchen Gyalwa Yungdrung (1242-1290)… the Druchen Gyalwa Yungdrung and the Sevenfold Cycle of the Clear Light….This work contains translations from the Bonpo Dzogchen practice manual for the Zhang Zhung Nyangyud, known as the Gyalwa Chaktri of Druchen Yungdrung, and from the Odsal Dunkor, the Sevenfold Cycle of the Clear Light, being the dark retreat practice from the same tradition

Drung, Deu: Narrations & Symbolic Languages… drung (narrations), deu (symbolic languages), and the Bon tradition….the epic poems and legends of Tibets secular culture…the ancient symbolic languages that conveyed wisdom inexpressible in conventional terms; and the pre-Buddhist Bon religion in the context of its 12 lores or sciences.

Dunhuang Caves…Large number of documents dating from 406 to 1002 CE were found in the cave, heaped up in closely packed layers of bundles of scrolls. The Library Cave also contained textiles such as banners, numerous damaged figurines of Buddhas, and other Buddhist paraphernalia.

Dzi & Ziji…To Tibetans and other Himalayan people, the dZi is a "precious jewel of supernatural orign" with great power to protect its wearer

Dzogchen…Tonpa Shenrab is said to have taught Bon in three successive cycles of teachings. First he taught the “Nine Ways of Bon”; then he taught the “Four Bon Portals and the Fifth, the Treasury”; and finally he revealed the “Outer, Inner and Secret Precepts.” In the final cycle of teachings the outer cycle is the path of renunciation, or sutric teachings; the inner cycle is the path of transformation, or tantric teachings; and the secret cycle is the path of self-liberation, or dzogchen teachings.


Emperor Asoka & Ahimsa (256 BC)

Eastern Satraps After Alexander



Earth Mudra ... Bhumisparsha...Sthāvara….Siddhartha reached out his right hand to touch the earth, and the earth itself roared, "I bear you witness!" Mara disappeared. And as the morning star rose in the sky, Siddhartha Gautama realized enlightenment and became a Buddha.

Early Buddhism in Balkh…..Trapusa and Bahalika (alternatively Bhallika) from Balkh in Afghanistan, are attributed to be the first two lay disciples of the Buddha

Early Chinese Accounts of Shambhala…Chinese: 香巴拉; pinyin: xiāngbālā….. a 'mythical' kingdom hidden somewhere in Inner Asia. It is mentioned in various ancient texts, including the Kalachakra Tantra and the ancient texts of the Zhang Zhung culture which predated Tibetan Buddhism in western Tibet

Early Shambhala Researchers…..Nikolai Roerich thought that the land of Mu was the sacred land of Shambhala where the Aryan god Phoebus (Sun in Greek).

Eastern Bactria, Gilgit, Chitral…Gilgit was an important city on the Silk Road, along which Buddhism was spread from South Asia to the rest of Asia. The Dards and Shinas appear in many of the old Pauranic lists of peoples who lived in the region, with the former also mentioned in Ptolemy's accounts of the region.

Eflatun Pinar, Sacred Hittite Spring (13th C. BCE)… In ancient times a small temple was built here to honor one of the ancient Hittite gods

Elamite Ziggurat ... Chogha Zanbil…Chogha Zanbil (Persian: چغازنبيل‎); Elamite: Dur Untash) is an ancient Elamite complex in the Khuzestan province of Iran. Chogha in Bakhtiari means hill. It is one of the few existent ziggurats outside of Mesopotamia.

Esoteric, Exoteric, Secret, Sacred and Profane….many societies have no words that translate as sacred or profane and that ultimately, just like the distinction between natural and supernatural, it was very much a product of European religious thought.

Eurasia Maps... 1200 BC and 500 BC…The division between Europe and Asia as two different continents is a historical and cultural construct, with no clear physical separation between them; thus, in some parts of the world, Eurasia is considered the largest of five or six continents.

Extreme Weather Events of 535–536 AD…..the most severe and protracted short-term episodes of cooling in the Northern Hemisphere in the last 2,000 years. The event is thought to have been caused by an extensive atmospheric dust veil, possibly resulting from a large volcanic eruption in the tropics, or debris from space impacting the Earth. Its effects were widespread, causing unseasonal weather, crop failures, and famines worldwide.


Fondukistan, Bamiyan, Surkh Kotal….an ancient archaeological site located in the southern part of the region of Bactria

Fourth Buddhist Council….

Father of Ge-sar: Tegin Shah (680 AD)…"Khorasan Tegin Shah" (= Tegin, King of the East), known in Chinese sources as Wusan teqin sa, was the second Turk Shahi on the throne of Kabul, succeeding his father Barha Tegin around or after 680 CE.

Feminine Deities & Shambhala…Prajapati, Buddha's step-mother/aunt, walked over a hundred miles to request permission -- even, insist -- on the right of women to become monastics. After she was ordained, she attained the awakened state and Nirvana along with many of the nuns.

Fifteen Stages of A-Khrid Meditation in Bon Dzogchen…"All of a sudden one says Phat! as mentioned in the Lung and does an intense comtemplation os 'self-eradication of attachment'. This is done to such an extent that a shudder of fear runs through the skin."

Fire Puja… a puja brings to us positive energies while simultaneously dissolving the ill effects of our negative actions.Pujas are typically directed towards different deity forms in order to invoke the attributes of that deity…Pujas involve Sanskrit mantra chanting along with offerings of flowers, fruit, rice, sweets, incense, milk, honey, water and other substances…..uja also includes a fire ceremony called a “homa.”

Five Elements Practices….In Bon, the five elemental processes of earth, water, fire, air and space are the essential elements of all existent phenomena or skandhas (aggregates) the most subtle enumeration of which are known as the five pure lights.

Five Pure Lights ('od lnga) & Dzogchen….From the five elements arise the five senses and the five fields of sensual experience; the five negative emotions and the five wisdoms; and the five extensions of the body. They are the five primary pranas or vital energies. They are the constituents of every physical, sensual, mental, and spiritual phenomenon.


Gandhāra…. (100 AD)

Garden of Eden….

Great Wall of China….Several walls were being built as early as the 7th century BC

Gurdjieff & Demiurgic Intelligences….

Ganas, Gi-kod, Thorse and Werma of Kailash…the werma is an important class of Bon deities. The werma are the angry, ferocious and fearless ones, the dgra lha of the arrows and lances. Two main groups of werma, one of 180 and the other of 360 members.

Gandharan Greco - Buddhist Art…. in northern Pakistan and eastern Afghanistan…the Kingdom of Gandhara lasted from the early 1st millennium BC to the 11th century AD. It attained its height from the 1st century to the 5th century under the Kushan Kings

Gandharvas & The Prajnaparamita…the gandharvas (Sanskrit: गन्धर्व, gandharva, Kannada: ಗಂಧರ್ವ, Tamil:கந்தர்வர், Telugu:గంధర్వ) are male nature spirits, husbands of the Apsaras. Some are part animal, usually a bird or horse. They have superb musical skills. They guarded the Soma and made beautiful music for the gods in their palaces. Gandharvas are frequently depicted as a singer in the court of Gods.

Garab Dorje (7th - 8th Century AD)….In the Land of Uddiyana, on the island Dhanakosha, was a great temple called the Blissful Tower, Deje Tsekpa, surrounded by 6800 shrines. In this tower lived King Upa Raja and his consort Queen Radiance. Their daughter, Sudharma dreamed that an immaculate white man came to her holding a crystal vessel sealed with the mantra OM AH HUNG SVAHA, and he placed it on her head three times and light shone out from it and she perceived the threefold world clearly in its totality. Soon after the Bhiksuni Sudharma gave birth to a son…the king called him Acharya Garab Dorje

Garsha: The Lahoul Valley...a valley called Lahoul, Garsha in the Tibetan texts…it is the place where the heart essence of wisdom, known as the feminine principle is nourished and respected. Compassionate Action flows unceasingly from this source. Literally translated from the Tibetan, this is a ‘land of the blissful dakinis’.

Garuda, Khyung… the khyung or horned eagle….solid archaeological evidence supporting Bon textual accounts of the antiquity of this noble figure... the findings of the Upper Tibet Rock Art Expedition

Gautama Buddha: The Fire Sermon…..The Ādittapariyāya Sutta (Pali, "Fire Sermon Discourse"), sometimes referred to simply as the Āditta Sutta , is a discourse from the Pali Canon, popularly known as the Fire Sermon

Golden Drink, Haoma/Soma Rituals…Sacred haoma has its origins in Indo-Iranian religion and is the cognate of Vedic soma.

Great Eastern Sun & Central Asia Geography…. "Khurassan" frequently had a much wider denotation, covering also parts of Central Asia and Afghanistan…"Khorasan" is derived from Middle Persian khor (meaning "sun") and asan (or ayan literally meaning "to come" or "coming" or "about to come"), hence meaning "land where the sun rises"

Great Eastern Sun: Sharchen Nyima…When you discover the sun in the sky, you begin to communicate with it. Your eyes begin to relate with the light of the sun.

Great Khorasan Road & The Silk Route…a Sumerian settlement first inhabited c. 5000 BCE which comprised a village and a fortress. It became an important stop along the Great Khorasan Road trade route, better known as the Silk Road, which was the major avenue for trade for close to 3000 years

Greco-Bactrian Region: Buddhist Era Kings… the easternmost part of the Hellenistic world, covering Bactria and Sogdiana in Central Asia from 250 to 125 BC. The expansion of the Greco-Bactrians into northern India from 180 BC established the Indo-Greek Kingdom, which was to last until around AD 10.

Greek Buddhism & Shambhala (200 BC)…Ancient Greek Buddhism is highlighted by two main points: the sculptural depiction of the Buddha and the textual report on King Menandros’ becoming a Buddhist adept. The 304 questions to King Menandros (reign: ca. 155-130 BCE), is a dialogue between the Greek sovereign of Hellenized Asia and the Venerable Nagasena. This resulted in the ruler’s acceptance of the Dharma as a lay disciple who subsequently had Buddhism disseminated throughout Indo-Greece.

Gurdjieff and Balkh…: “All roads lead to Balkh.” ...the esoteric capital of the world. It is claimed that there are – or were – initiatic brotherhoods based in the city with lineages going back deep into ancient times before the Greeks, Persians, Indians, Arabs, Turks and others, adapting to the coming and going of changing empires. The Sufis will often say that Sufism came before Islam and will be Sufism after Islam too. This is the spirit of Balkh, an enduring ancient legacy fed by diverse streams of influence over the last 2500+ years at least.

Gyatso: Ocean, Sacred Water…Gyatso or Gyamco (Tibetan: རྒྱ་མཚོ, Wylie: rgya mtsho, ZYPY: Gyamco) is a Tibetan personal name meaning "ocean". ..Chögyam Trungpa (Chögyam is short for Chögyi Gyamtso),


Hephthalites & Bactria(500 AD)….Balkh came under Hepthalites or Huns by the of 4th Century A.D.... followed a religion akin to Zorastrianism and worshipped fire and Sun. Subsequently, Hun Kings became followers of Buddhism...."

Hermeneutics & Translators….

Hvare khshaeta….

HOZHO: Dine’ Concept of Balance and Beauty…Ho′zho′: The Navajo Concept of Balance and Beauty…..Consideration of the nature of the universe, the world, man, the nature of time and space, creation, growth, motion, order, control, and the life cycle…..expressed in terms quite impossible to translate into English.

Haplogroup Q-M242 & Indigenous America….Haplogroup Q-M242 is believed to have arisen in North Asia approximately 17,000 to 22,000 years ago…Q-M242 came to dominate the paternal lineages in the Americas….haplogroup Q-M242 has been found in approximately 94% of Indigenous peoples of South America and detected in Na-Dené speakers at a rate of 25-50%, and North American Eskimo–Aleut populations at about 46%

Heirophants, Tantric Masters & Buddhist Patriarchs…A hierophant is a person who brings religious congregants into the presence of that which is deemed holy. The word comes from Ancient Greece, where it was constructed from the combination of ta hiera, "the holy," and phainein, "to show." In Attica it was the title of the chief priest at the Eleusinian Mysteries

Historical Shakyamuni Buddha…The times of Gautama's birth and death are uncertain: most historians in the early 20th century dated his lifetime as circa 563 BCE to 483 BCE, but more recent opinion dates his death to between 486 and 483 BCE or, according to some, between 411 and 400 BCE

Historical Shambhala & Silk Route Adobe…The word adobe has existed for around 4,000 years, with relatively little change in either pronunciation or meaning. The word can be traced from the Middle Egyptian (c. 2000 BC) word dj-b-t "mud [i.e., sun-dried] brick."

Historical Timetable… 1st C AD - Present

Historical Timetable....20,000 BC - 800 BC

Historical Timetable...5000 BC - 100 AD

Horse & Shambhala Dignities….the most popular of the Bactrian animals is the Bactrian horse. This animal played a partial role in the reputation of Bactrian cavalry in the ancient world.

Hui Chao: Bactrian Pilgrimage (726 AD)…Buddhist monk from Silla, one of the three Korean kingdoms of the period….On the advice of his Indian teachers in China, he set out for India in 723 CE to acquaint himself with the language and culture of the land of the Buddha.

Human Feminine & Shambhala…There was a beautiful young Afghan girl in Balkh named Roxanne. Her father was the King of Balkh. Alexander the Great conquered Balkh in 329 BC

Hvarena, Khvarnah & Fravashi….The awesome divine luster, Hvarena, was generated by the great god Ahura Mazda and it became manifest in the great Yima Vaivanghant, who then lost a third of it as his decline began. This lost Hvarena departed in the form of the Varaghna bird and was taken up by the god Mithra.


Ilm-e-Khshnoom & Esoteric Zoroastrianism…Ilm-e-Khshnoom is a school of Zoroastrian philosophy, practiced by a very small minority of the Indian Zoroastrians (Parsis/Iranis), based on a mystic and esoteric, rather than literal, interpretation of religious texts.

Inanna, Anahiti & Legendary Aratta…Inanna is the most important goddess of the Sumerian pantheon in ancient Mesopotamia. She is a goddess of love, fertility, and war…a daughter of the sky-god An, but also of the moon-god Nanna. A variation of her name is Ninnanna, which means 'queen of the sky'. She is also called Ninsianna as the personification of the planet Venus. The Akkadians called her Ishtar.

Indrabhuti of Oddiyana, King Dza…….Indrabhuti: the Enlightened Siddha King….the land of Oddiyana was divided into two kingdoms. The kingdom of Lankapuri was Brahmin and ruled by king Jalendra and the kingdom of Sambhola was Buddhist and ruled by king Indrabhuti.

Iranian Buddhism….Buddhism in Iran may date as far back as the 5th or 6th century BCE, during the life of the historical Buddha Sakyamuni. A Pali legend suggests that the spread of Buddhism to Balkh was initiated by two merchant brothers from Bactria (present-day Afghanistan)….At the time of the Arab conquests in the mid-7th century, much of the eastern Iranian world was mainly Buddhist. Afghanistan is rich in Buddhist sites.

Iron Age in Central Asia…The Iron Age as an archaeological term indicates the condition as to civilization and culture of a people using iron as the material for their cutting tools and weapons….The Iron Age in Central Asia began when iron objects appear among the Indo-European Saka in present-day Xinjiang between the 10th century BC and the 7th century BC.


Jainism & Rishabha…Since 4th or 3rd century BCE, Rishabha is widely worshiped as the founder and the first tirthankara of Jainism.

Jambhala & Kubera: Gods of Wealth…Kubera (Sanskrit: कुबेर, Pali/later Sanskrit: Kuvera) also spelt Kuber, is the Lord of wealth and the god-king of the semi-divine Yakshas in Hindu mythology. He is regarded as the regent of the North (Dik-pala)….Kubera once ruled Lanka, but was overthrown by his demon stepbrother Ravana, later settling in the city of Alaka in the Himalayas….In Buddhism, he is known as Vaisravana, the patronymic used of the Hindu Kubera and is also equated with Pañcika, while in Jainism, he is known as Sarvanubhuti.

Japanese Shamanism & Solar Kingship…The Central Asian Origin of Japan’s Solar Kingship….we describe many of the ancient features of Japanese kingship, with the intent to identify a specific origin for Japan’s early imperial institution in Central Asia. We begin with an outline of the elements of divine kingship in the ancient Near East.

Japanese Shinto…Shinto ("the way of the Kami") is the name of the formal state religion of Japan that was first used in the 6th century C.E., although the roots of the religion go back to at least the 6th century B.C.E.





Khorasan ('Sun Rises')….

Khyunglung Ngülkhar….

Kingdom of Khotan…. the foundation of Khotan occurred when Kushtana, said to be a son of Asoka, the Mauryan emperor, settled there about 224 BCE.

Kunlun & Xi Wangmu….

Kingdom of Yuezhi …. (200 BC)….The Kingdom of the Da Yuezhi 大月氏 (the Kushans)

Kingdom of Xiongnu…. (209 BC)

Kaula Tantrism

Kashmiri Pandit, Naropa

King Jalendra and Lankapuri

King Indrabhuti & Sambhola

King Rāvana of Lankapura

KHYUNGPO NALJOR (978-1172 AD)…."the Yogin of the Garuda clan."…978-1127…by the age of ten he excelled in reading, writing, arithmetic and both Chinese and Indian astrology. At twelve, in accordance with the tradition on his father's side of the family, he studied the Bon teachings. Later on he practiced Dzogchen and Mahamudra.

Kalachakra & Suryaratha…Rishis (seers) led by the sage Suryaratha ("sun chariot”)….as the first Kulika king, Manjushrikirti, preached the Kalachakra Tantra to his subjects, Suryaratha distanced himself from it, and his followers, the Rishis, joined him.

Kalachakra: 9th Century BC…The Kalachakra tantra puts the life of Shakyamuni Buddha in the 9th. Century BCE, instead of the more commonly accepted 6th. Century BCE.

Kalachakra Deities….The Kālachakra refers to many different traditions, for example the Hindu; Saivite, Samkya, Vaishnava, the Vedas, Upanisads and Puranas traditions, but also Jainism. For example, the Kālachakra mandala includes deities which are equally accepted by Hindus, Jainas and Buddhists

Kalachakra Military Verses…The graphic description of the war machines to which the Kalachakra deity devotes a number of pages already in the first chapter of the tantra is downright impressive and astonishing... A total of seven exceptionally destructive arts of weapon are introduced.

Kalachakra Symbolism & Shambhala…Kalachakra, meaning cycles of time, has many different levels of symbolism

Kalachakra: Oddiyana & Shambala…Oddiyana and Kashmir at this time had Hindu and Buddhist populations under Hindu rulers, as did Shambhala.

Kalapa Description…Kalapa, according to Buddhist legend, is the capital city of the Kingdom of Shambhala, where the Kulika King is said to reign on a lion throne. It is said to have been an exceeding beautiful city

Kalash & Shambhala…The Kalasha (Kalasha: Kaĺaśa, Nuristani: Kasivo) or Kalash, are a Dardic indigenous people residing in the Chitral District of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. They speak the Kalasha language, from the Dardic family of the Indo-Aryan branch, and are considered a unique tribe among the Indo-Aryan peoples of Pakistan…. The Kalash of Chitral have maintained their own separate cultural traditions.

Kalkin Kings of Shambhala…In Hinduism, Kalki (Devanagari: कल्कि; meaning 'Eternity,' 'White Horse,' or 'Destroyer of Filth') is the final incarnation of Vishnu in the current Mahayuga, foretold to appear at the end of Kali Yuga, the current epoch...the Puranas foretell that Kalki will be atop a white horse….In Buddhist Kalachakra tradition, 25 rulers of the Shambhala Kingdom held the title of Kalki, Kulika or Kalki-king

Kashmir Shaivism & Shambhala Tantra… a group of several monistic and tantric religious traditions that flourished in Kashmir from the latter centuries of the first millennium C.E. through the early centuries of the second.

Kashmir Smast & The Mardan Valley…The Kashmir Smast caves, also called Kashmir Smats, are a series of natural limestone caves, artificially expanded from the Kushan to the Shahi periods, situated in the Babozai and Pirsai mountains in the Mardan Valley in Northern Pakistan. According to recent scholarship based on a rare series of bronze coins and artifacts found in the region, the caves and their adjacent valley probably comprised a sovereign kingdom in Gandhara which maintained at least partial independence for almost 500 years, from c. 4th century AD to the 9th century AD.

Keyumars....Gayomart....King Gar-shāh….Gayōmart Gar-shāh (King of the Mountains) was the first human Uhrmazd created.

Kham & Uyghur Qinghai….Linguists and anthropologists refer to Kham as the 'Ethnic Corridor of Southwest China' inhabited by over 14 culturally and linguistically distinct ethnic groups. For reasons of simplicity, the Chinese government combines the various ethnic groups of Kham together with the Tibetans to form one big nationality, called the "Tibetan Nationality". There are, however, significant differences in traditions and beliefs—even physical appearance—between the peoples of Kham and Lhasa. At least one-third of Kham residents are speakers of Qiangic languages…The people of Kham are reputed warriors.

Khezr, Khidr….Khidr or al-Khidr (Arabic: الخضر‎ al-Khiḍr, also transcribed as Khidr, Khizr, Khyzer, Qhizyer, Qhezar, Khizar, Xızır, Hızır)… In medieval Islamic tradition, Khidr is variously described as a messenger or a prophet. Sufis had different opinions about his position that he was a prophet or wali. Actually he syncretized with various figures and so he has gained many new features in time; in India with Vishnu,in Iran with Sorūsh (Avesta Sraosha) and Mithra, in historical Armenia with Saint Sarkis (Saint Sergius) and John the Baptist, in Asia Minor and Levant with Saint George etc.

Khwājagān Tradition…a Persian title for "the Master". Khwajagan is a word often used to refer to a chain of Central Asian Naqshbandi Sufi Masters from the 10th to the 16th century. In Firdowsi's Shahnama the word is used many times for some rulers and heroes of ancient Iran

Ki So Cha'o: Phywa…Ki Ki so so Lha Gyal Lo ….. Meaning “Victory to the Gods”.

King Ashoka (Maurya: 324-187 BCE)…Ashoka's capital was in Pataliputra, from which he controlled northern India and 14 other states, extending to Bactria, in the west, and southern India to the Krishna River.

King Diodotus of Bactria & Emperor Ashoka….Diodotus, the governor of the thousand cities of Bactria….the new kingdom, highly urbanized and considered as one of the richest of the Orient (opulentissimum illud mille urbium Bactrianum imperium "The extremely prosperous empire of the thousand cities of Bactria

King Gesar...Phrom and Uighur Hor gling…The Epic of King Gesar (Tibetan: གེ་སར་རྒྱལ་པོ, Ge-sar rGyal-po, "King Gesar"; Geser Khan, "King Geser"), also spelled Geser (especially in Mongolian contexts) or Kesar (/ˈkɛzər/ or /ˈkɛsər/), is an epic cycle that relates the heroic deeds of the culture hero Gesar, the fearless lord of the legendary kingdom of Ling … It is recorded variously in poetry and prose and is sung widely throughout Central Asia.

King Kanishka (Kushan dynasty 127-151 AD)….the greatest king of the Kushana dynasty. The Kushana were a nomadic tribe who had split from the Yueh-chi tribes and established themselves in Bactria...Although he honoured the Zoroastrian, Greek and Brahmanic deities, Kanishka is mostly remembered for convening the fourth great Buddhist council in Kashmir, which marked the beginning of pantheistic Mahayana Buddhism.

King Menander (Bactria: 165- 130 BC)…Menander I Soter "The Saviour" (known as Milinda in Indian Pali sources) was the Indo-Greek king (165/[2]/155[2] BC-130 BC) who established a large empire in the South Asia and became a patron of Buddhism. Menander was born in the Caucasus Asia, and was initially a king of Bactria.

King Vishtaspa of Balkh (900 BC?)…(Vištāspa) is the Avestan-language name of a figure of Zoroastrian scripture and tradition, portrayed as an early follower of Zoroaster, and his patron, and instrumental in the diffusion of the prophet's message.

Kingdom of Balkh: 2500 BC… The period between 26th and 20th century BC was the most important period in the history of Balkh;

Kingdom of Guge…Guge was an ancient kingdom in Western Tibet. The kingdom was centered in present-day Zanda County, within Ngari Prefecture of Tibet. At various points in history after 10th century AD, the kingdom held sway over a vast area including south-eastern Zanskar, Upper Kinnaur, and Spiti valley either by conquest or as tributaries. The ruins of the former capital of Guge kingdom are located at Tsaparang in the Sutlej valley, not far from Mount Kailash

Kingdom of Qocho….The Kingdom of Qocho, also called the Idiqut state ("Holy Wealth, Glory"), was an Uyghur state created during AD 856–866, based in the cities of Qocho (also called Kara-Khoja) near Turpan….The kingdom was a Buddhist state, with state-sponsored Buddhism and Manichaeism, and it can be considered the center of Uyghur culture.

Kunzang Akor: Shenlha Okar…The Bonpo Deity Kunzang Akor: the All-good 'A' Circle is a meditational form of Shenlha Okar. He is generally recognized by the Tibetan letter 'A' placed on the chest at the level of the heart. The two hands generally rest in the lap and hold the stems of two flower blossoms supporting a yungdrung (svastika) on the right and a vase on the left. There are numerous traditions of ritual cycles and meditation practices for Kunzang Akor

Kālá...Time…means "a fixed or right point of time, a space of time, time ... destiny, fate ... death" and has a feminine form (found at the end of compounds) ending in ā, as mentioned in the ṛgveda Prātiśākhya.

Kāśyapa Buddha… Kassapa (Pāli) is the name of a Buddha, the third of the five Buddhas of the present kalpa (the Bhaddakappa or 'Fortunate Aeon'), and the sixth of the six Buddhas prior to the historical Buddha mentioned in the earlier parts of the Pali Canon (D.ii.7). In the Buddhist texts in Sanskrit, this Buddha is known as Kāśyapa.


Lady Pu-abi (Sumeria...2600 BC)…. Pu-abi may have been a high priestess in the service of the moon god, Nanna, patron of Ur. The seal is made from lapis lazuli, which would have come from Afghanistan

Lakshminkara Mahasiddha, Oḍḍiyāna…Lakshminkara: the Crazy Princess… the sister of the great king Indrabhuti who ruled over the kingdom of Sambala in the land of Oddiyana. She was wise and through listening to the teachings of Lawapa, she became well versed in many tantras. When she was of age, her brother arranged to marry her off to prince Jalandhara, a son of the King of Lankapuri.

Lamed Thegpa ...Great Perfection Dzogchen….The Ninth Way of Bon…. (bLa-med theg-pa), the Unsurpassed Way, is concerned with the highest attainment through the path of Great Perfection (i.e., rDzogs-chen).

Land of the Dakinis…. Uddiyana remains the legendary Land of the Dakinis, that is, a land of exceptionally beautiful and independent women.

Languages & Linguistics….Among Indo-Iranian languages, the use of the Greek script is unique to Bactrian.

Lapis Lazuli Trade Route (4000 BC)…Lapis lazuli was being mined in the Sar-i Sang mines and in other mines in the Badakhshan province in northeast Afghanistan as early as the 7th millennium BC

Lhak-thong...The Fourth Moment…The fourth moment is not a far-out or extraordinary experience as such. It is a state of experience that doesn’t even belong to now.

Longchenpa's Radical Dzogchen….Dzogchen, the Great Perfection, is Tibet's principal tradition of gnostic mysticism, commensurate to the Chinese Taoism of Lao Tsu and the Indian Advaita Vedanta of Shankaracharya and Ramana Maharshi.

Land of Uttarakuru….



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